the idea that human behaviors and characteristics are distributed along a bell curve.
People w/disabilities want to...
Make decisions about their lives
Choose their friends
Live life to the fullest
What makes disabled students more likely to drop out?
• do not think school is meaningful
• do not see classes as relevant
• cannot get the classes they want
• find teachers impersonal
What percentage of disabled people drop out of high school?
What percent of disabled people are unemployed?
It's not easy for disabled people to...
Find travel accommodations
Get jobs they are prepared for
Find suitable housing
Examples of poor treatment of disabled people
Jesters in the Middle Ages/Renaissance
takes into consideration many different cultures and values that may differ from mainstream ideas.
The sociological perspective...
The way people treat individuals is what makes people different
To qualify for special ed services under the "learning disability" category
Based on discrepancy between IQ and ACH test – Regression formula used in TN
Characteristics of learning disabilities
Reading problems, organization of written language, lack of sensitivity to audience, math difficulties, difficulty reading social cues, low peer acceptance, employment difficulties
Accomodations for learning disabilities
Direct instruction-especially phonics
To qualify for SpEd under the "Emotionally Disturbed" category...
Must exhibit one or more of the characteristics as listed in the state-adopted eligibilty criteria over a long period of time and to a marked degree that affects performance. Includes schizophrenia. Does not apply to the socially maladjusted unless they have an emotional disturbance. Observations used.
Characteristics of emotionally disturbed
Inability to learn which cannot be described by limited school experience, cultural differences, or inadequate intellectual/sensory/health factors. Inability to maintain satisfactory relationships with peers and school personell. Inappropriate feelings or behaviors when no unusual stressors are evident. General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with problems.
Emotionally disturbed accomodations
Interventions should be based on Functional Assessment that addresses etiology of problematic behavior; the child should also be receiving counseling
To qualify for SpEd under "Communication Disorders"
Speech or Language Impairment that adversely affects educational performance; Includes Speech Impairments or Language Impairment that is not commensurate with CA: 1.5 standard deviations below the mean Does not include second language or dialectical issues
Characteristics of Communication Disorders
Language - a deficiency in receptive language skills to gain information;
a deficiency in expressive language skills to communicate information;
a deficiency in processing skills to organize information.
Speech- articulation, voice or fluency disorders that draw attention to themselves
Accommodations for Communication Disorders
The way adults talk to children may help
Lots of context
Lots of ostensive labeling
New words often utterance final
Final position salient for children
Slower rate; clear prosody
To qualify under deaf/hearing impaired
A child shall have one or more of the characteristics to qualify as hearing impaired. The characteristics as defined are present and cause an adverse effect on educational performance in the general education classroom or learning environment, including academic performance, speech and/or language development or communications skills.
“Deafness” means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing; with or without amplification that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Characteristics - deaf/hearing impaired
(1) Inability to communicate effectively (2) Inability to perform academically;
(3) Delayed speech and/or language development
Signs to watch for:
Accomodations - deaf/hearing impaired
Use any residual hearing that is available
Characteristics - visually impaired
(1) Visual acuity in the better eye or both eyes with best possible correction:
(a) Legal Blindness – 20/200 or less at distance and/or near;
(b) Low Vision – 20/50 or less at distance and/or near;
(2) Visual field restriction with both eyes:
(a) Legal Blindness – remaining visual field of 20 degrees or less;
(b) Low Vision – remaining visual field of 60 degrees or less;
(c) Medical and educational documentation of progressive loss of vision, which may in the future, affect the student's ability to learn visually, or
(3) Other visual impairment, not perceptual in nature, resulting from a medically documented condition
Echolalia - more common if additional disabilities
Verbalisms- repeat definitions without the concepts
Concrete experiences are important
Large print for those whom can benefit
Books on tape
Qualification - physical impairment
(1) Orthopedic impairment; and
(2) Demonstration of adverse affects on educational performance in the general education classroom and/or, educational environment; and
(3) Demonstration of adverse affects on access to learning environment.
Characteristics - Physical impairments
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Accomodations - Physical impairments
Use mobility the student has
Eliminate any environmental barriers that would prevent student from participation
To Qualify - Other impairments
(1) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention-deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia; and
(2) Adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Characteristics - Other impairments
This is where ADHD falls when included under special education. This is done only when it impacts learning. ADHD usually is not served under Special education and is served under a 504 plan.
A child is other health impaired who has chronic or acute health problems that indicate a need for special education participation due to:
(1) Impaired organizational or work skills;
(2) Inability to manage or complete tasks;
(3) Difficulty interacting with others;
(4) Excessive health related absenteeism; or
(5) Medications that affect cognitive functioning.
Accomodations - Other
Qualification - Traumatic Brain Injury
“Traumatic Brain Injury” means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Characteristics - TBI
Impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech
Accomodations - TBI
Interventions aimed at the specific weakness acquired; goals may be academic, social, language oriented, behavioral
Mental Retardation - Qualification
Significantly impaired intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period
IQ- 2 standard deviations below mean (usually >70)
Adaptive behavior composite score 2 SD below mean
Characteristics of MR - 0 to 6 yrs
communication, self-care, social skills, and physical development
communication, self-care, social skills, home living, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, and leisure
communication, self-care, social skills, home-living, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work
Accomodations for MR
Language and other skill building in natural context because of difficulty with generalization
Autism - Qualifications
developmental disability, which significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three (3), that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
The term of autism also includes students who have been diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder such as Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger’s Syndrome when the child’s educational performance is adversely affected
(1) Difficulty relating to others or interacting in a socially appropriate manner; and
(2) Absence, disorder, or delay in verbal and/or nonverbal communication; and
(3) One or more of the following:
(a) Insistence on sameness; and/or
(b) Unusual or inconsistent responses to sensory stimuli.
Clearly defined spatial limits
“adult tools” color coded
Developmentally delayed - Qualification
Used for children through the age of 9 who are too young to test accurately and whose
1) performance on a standardized developmental evaluation instrument which yields 1.5 standard deviations below the mean, or 25% delay based on chronological age in two or more of the developmental areas; or
(2) Performance on a standardized developmental evaluation instrument which yields 2.0 standard deviations below the mean or 40% delay based on chronological age in one of the developmental areas;
(3) When one area is determined to be deficit by 40% or more, the existence of other disability categories shall be ruled out.
DD - Characteristics
Physical, cognitive, communication development, social or emotional, or adaptive development that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
DD - Accomodations
Broad range of intervention depending on the developmental delay. Language should be a major focus for early intervention and the child’s entire family should be included in intervention. Transition to school is to be addressed.
Gifted - Qualification (included in TN, not federal gov't)
Based on 3 options and includes
Gifted - Charisterictics
Above grade level
Breadth and Depth of Information
Creative- sometimes overlooked
Functionally Delayed - Only in TN - Qual.
a child who has or develops a continuing disability in intellectual functioning and achievement which significantly affects the ability to think and/or act in the general school program, but who is functioning socially at or near a level appropriate to his/her chronological age
FD - Char.
academic achievement which is at or below the fourth percentile in two or more total or composite scores in the following areas:
(a) Basic reading skills,
(b) Reading comprehension,
(c) Mathematics calculation,
(d) Mathematics reasoning,
(e) Written expression
FD - Accom.
Language and other skill building in natural context
Success for disabled people can be measured by...
their presence in communities as independent adults who assume their places alongside people without disabilities
Father of Special Education, worked with Victor the wild child
The Moral Treatment, Hygiene, and Education of Idiots and Other Backward Children
Brought experts in deaf education to the US
Founded the New England Asylum for the Blind (Later Perkins Institute and now Perkins School for the Blind)
Section 504 grants basic rights to disabled people