1. Types of Burns
    • Thermal
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
    • Radiation
  2. Jackson's Theory of Thermal Wounds
    • Explanation of the physical effects of thermal burns
    • Zone of Coagulation
    • Zone of Stasis
    • Zone of Hyperemia
  3. Zone of Coagulation
    Area in a burn nearest the heat source that suffers the most damage and is characterized by clotted blood and thronbosed blood vessels
  4. Zone of Stasis
    Area in a burn surrounding the zone of coagulation that is characterized by decreased blood flow
  5. Zone of Hyperemia
    Area peripheral to a burn that is characterized by increased blood flow
  6. Body's response to burns:
    4 stages
    • Emergent Phase
    • Fluid shift phase
    • Hypermetabolic phase
    • Resolution Phase
  7. Emergent Phase
    First stage of the burn process that is characterized by a chtecholamine release and pain mediated reaction
  8. Fluid shift phase
    stage of the burn process in which there is a massive shift of fluid from the intravascular to the extravascular space
  9. Hypermetabolic phase
    Stage of the burn process in which there is increased body metabolism in an attempt by the body to heal the burn
  10. Resolution Phase
    Final stage of the burn process in which scar tissue is laid down and the healing process is completed
  11. Electical burn can be particularly damagin because:
    the current burns from the inside out
  12. Acid Chemical Burns:
    usually a form of a thick insoluble mass where they contact tissue through coagulation necrosis, limiting burn damage
  13. Alkalis Chemical Burn:
    usually continue to destroy cell membranes through liquefaction necrosis, allowing them to penetrate underlying tissue and causing deeper burns
  14. Coagulation Necrosis:
    The process in which an acid, while destroying tissue, forms an insoluble layer that limits further damage
  15. Liquefaction necrosis:
    The process in which an alkali dissolves and liquefies tissue
  16. Factors Affecting Exposure to Radiation:
    • Duration of exposure
    • Distance from the source
    • Shielding from the source
  17. Inhalation injury may be associated with burns especially if the injury occurred in:
    An enclosed space
  18. Types of inhalation injury
    • Toxic inhalation
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
    • Airway thermal burn
  19. Depth of Burns:
    • Superficial burns
    • Partial thickness burns
    • Full thickness burns
  20. Superficial burns
    a burn that involves only the epidermis; reddening skin
  21. Partial thickness burns
    Burn in which the epidermis is burned through and the dermis is damaged; reddness and blistering
  22. Full thickness burn:
    Burn that damages all layers of the skin; areas are white and dry
  23. In sever burns to airway consider early:
  24. Local and minor burn management:
    Cool water immersion of minor localized burns may be effective if accomplished in the first few minutes after a burn
  25. Extensive partial and full thickness burn management:
    Cover with dry sterile dressing or a clean sheet, keep the patient warm, initiate fluid resuscitation
  26. What to use between areas of full thickness burns:
    Use soft, nonadherent dressing, as between the fingers and toes to prevent adhesion
  27. Fluid resuscitation dosage:
    4 mL x patient wheight in kg x BSA burned= fluids for 24 hours

    Half administered in first 8 hours, other half over next 16 hours
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