Infant/Toddler Educare

  1. Ossification
    Process of converting cartilage to bone
  2. Calcification
    Process of hardening continues
  3. Growth
    • Ossification
    • Calcification
  4. Wellhousen recommends these 4 principles for appropriate for play:
    • Allow a wide range of movement
    • Stimulate the senses
    • Offer novelty, variety, and challenge
    • Address safety and comfort
  5. Challenges for Physical Activity
    • Lack of knowledge about appropriate physical activities for indoor and outdoor settings
    • Lack of funding to purchase appropriate equipment
    • Lack of knowledge regarding adaptions for children with special needs
    • A reluctance to take children outdoors because of temperature considerations or the preparation time required for dressing children at this age
  6. Fine Motor Skils
    • Hand preference may develop a pattern
    • Manipulative Skills
    • Manual Dexterity
    • Hand-Eye Coordination
    • Self-Help Skills further develop and should be fostered
  7. Maniupulative Skills
    Learned behaviors involving an increasing ability to handle materials and objects successfully
  8. Manual Dexterity
    the individual's ability to use the hands to achieve complex tasks
  9. Hand-Eye Coordination
    The skilled connection between seeing something, reaching for it, and grasping it
  10. Toliet Learning
    • The individual's gradual maturational process of understanding and acquiring skills required to use the toilet for bowel movements and urination
    • Children must be maturationally ready to learn to use the toilet. You should never force this.
    • Some children do not have control over their bowel and bladder functions until 36 months, so be patient
  11. Helpful Tips for Toilet Learning
    • View the process as learning, rather than training
    • Understand that bowel control usually happens before bladder control
    • Have consisten procedures that are followed at home and at center
  12. Oral and Taste Exploration
    • Food jags are normal
    • Children are neophobic
    • FITS study (2004) found that 8-15 repeated exposures of a new food were necessary for a child to accept it. Caregivers/Parents typically only offer it 3-5 times and then give up
    • Children still need finger foods because they have limited fine motor skills for eating with utensils
  13. Olfactory Systems
    • They can respond to different "good" and "bad" smells
    • They may enjoy smelling games and new sensations
  14. Vision
    • Most children have reached 20/20 vision by 12-18 months, however some genetic or other factors can influence this development
    • Observational Learning is key. Young children learn by watching other people's behaviors and responses
    • They may not realize that when they see only part of a picture/object, it is part of a whole
  15. Sensorimotor Behaviors
    • Trial and Error
    • Discovery Play
    • Concepts
  16. Trial and Error
    Learning through experimenting and making mistakes, as well as successes
  17. Discovery Play
    Spontaneous activity that involves finding out the properties of materials and how they work
  18. Concepts
    Clusters of schemes (patterns, mental representations) that together create an idea
  19. Learnng Styles
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Tactile/Kinesthetic
  20. Attending
    Paying attention to a stimulus
  21. Channel of Preference
    The individual's best or preferred way of communicating and functioning
  22. Receptive and Expressive Language
    • Most children this age understand around 70 words
    • They should be able to follow simple instructions
    • Should be able to point to familiar objects and identify several parts of the body when asked
    • Speech should be 25% intelligible to anyone who hears it
    • Tuneful babbling
    • Variegated Babbling
  23. Tuneful Babbling
    Strings of sound that have patterns of pitch and rhythm
  24. Variegated Babbling
    Long strings of different syllables used in vocal experimentation
  25. Proto-Words
    Vocal interactions that resemble real conversations but lack grammatical rules (ba ba for bottle)
  26. Holophrase
    One-word utterance that stands for a whole phrase; the meaning depends on the context (ba ba for "I want my bottle)
  27. Phonological
    Sounds of language
  28. Grammar/Syntax
    Absorbing rules of the language
  29. Semantics
    Vast vocabulary and appreciating meanings
  30. Pragmatics
    Learning the purposes and intents of language
  31. Phonological Awareness
    Is different than Phonics. Phonics are not considered appropriate at these ages
  32. Social Emotions
    • Temper Tantrums
    • Shame and guilt are new emotions for toddlers
    • Focus on prosocial skills
    • Continue to foster attachment between caregivers and the child
  33. Temper Tantrums
    A loss of control of emotions or the experience of conflicted feelings, resulting in anger. Occur frequently at this stage because toddlers have little emotion regulation.
  34. Prosocial Skills
    Learned behaviors that intend to help others such as sharing and helping
  35. Self-Esteem
    An individuals preception of his overall positive or negative self worth
  36. Play
    Spontaneous, intrinsically motivated, enjoyable activity resulting in learning; the child's work; a means of discovery; practice for adulthood; an actvitiy to reduce stress; a means of fostering development; a route to self-discovery; a way of learning social skills; an activity for its own sake
  37. Practice Play
    Involves repeated actions that aid in discovery
  38. Sensory Play
    Involves touching, smelling, tasting, hearing, and/or seeing
  39. Symbolic Play
    Activity that involves process of using words or actions for something else
  40. Imitation
    Act of copying single action or actions of others
  41. Solitary Play
    Spontaneous activity involving only the individual and no other participants.
  42. Functional Play
    Exploring a toy to see how it works such as banging toys together or dumping containers
  43. Ways to Foster Literacy
    • Take to babies, use simple language and eye contact
    • Be responsive to their cues
    • Share books and read together
    • Provide writing materials to explore
    • Have a literacy rich environment
Card Set
Infant/Toddler Educare