1. Macromolecules
    large molecules
  2. polymer
    a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds (only carbs, nucleic acids, and proteins)
  3. monomers
    the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of polymer as smaller molecules
  4. condensation reaction
    loss of water molecule
  5. dehydration reaction
    water is the molecule that is loss;one molecule provide hydroxyl group (-OH) , other provides hydrogen (-H)
  6. enzymes
    specialized macromolecules that seed up chem.. reactions in cells
  7. hydrolysis
    ”break using water” the process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis
  8. carbohydrate
    include both sugars and polymers of sugars simplest carbs are monosaccharides aka simple sugars; disaccharides- double sugars consisting of two monosaccharides by covalent bond
  9. polysaccharides
    polymer composed of many sugar building blocks
  10. monosaccharides
    generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple unit CH2O
  11. Disaccharide
    consist of two monosaccharides joined by a Glycosidic linkage
  12. glycosidic linkage
    a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration reaction (extraction of H2O)
  13. Starch
    plants storage; a polymer of glucose monomers asgranules known as plastids, which includes chloroplast
  14. amylose
    unbranched more linear (simplest)
  15. amylopectin
    complex and branched
  16. Cellulose
    major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells; polymer glucose but Glycosidic linkage differ
  17. alpha
    all monomers are in the same orientation (starch & glycogen)
  18. beta
    • every other monomer is upside down
    • interchangeably ( cellulose); It’s the most abundant organic compound on earth
  19. chitin
    the carb. Used by arthropods (insects, spiders, crusteans) to build their exoskeleton (animal &fungi)
  20. fat
    constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acids
  21. glycerol
    an alcohol with three carbons, each bearing a hydroxyl group
  22. fatty acids
    has a long carbon skeleton; end of the carbon chain is a part of a carboxyl group
  23. ester linkage
    a bond between a hydroxyl groups and carboxyl group= triacyglycerol
  24. triacyglycerol (triglyceride)
    Consist of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol
  25. Steroids
    lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
  26. Cholesterol
    common component of animal cell membranes
  27. catalysts
    enzymatic proteins regulate metabolism by acting; chem. Agents that speeds up chem. Reaction w/o being consumed by the reaction
  28. peptide
    polymer of amino acids
  29. protein
    consist of one or more polypeptides each folded and coiled into a specific 3-d structure
  30. amino acids
    organic molecules processing both carboxyl and amino group
  31. peptide bond
    links amino acids that are joined together by dehydration reaction
  32. chaperonins
    protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins
  33. 2 types of nucleic acids
    DNA and RNA
  34. DNA
    • Provides directions for its own replication
    • Directs RNA synthesis
  35. RNA
    Controls protein synthesis
  36. Pyramidine
    • has 6-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
    • Family are C (cytosine),T (thymine) ,U (uracil)
  37. Purines
    larger with 6-membered ring fused to a five membered ring

    • A (adenine) and G (guanine)
    • 2’ and 5’ carbons
  38. Phosphodiester linkage
    • consist of a phosphate group that links that sugars of two nucleotides
    • 3’ and 5’ carbons
Card Set