ch 40

  1. when air temperature exceeds thier body temp. jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will
    constrict the blood vessels in their large ears
  2. a reasonable evolutionary mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited to specific functions
    animals with mutations that give rsie to effective structures will become more abundant
  3. evolutionary adaptatons that help diverse animals exchange matter with teh environment include
    external respiratory surface, small size, and two-layered body
  4. similar fusiform body shsapes are seen in sharks, penguins, and aquatic mammals because
    the laws of physcis constrain the shapes that are possible for aquatic animals that swim very fast
  5. regarding the evolution of specialized animal structures
    short-term adjustments to environmental changes are often mediated by physiological organ systems
  6. all animals whether large or small,
    have all of their living cells surrounded by an aqueous medium
  7. body size increases in animals
    there is a decrease in the surface to volume ratio
  8. to increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces in the lungs and in the intestines, evolutionary pressures have
    increased the surface area available for exchange
  9. specialixed function shared by the many cells lining the lungs and the lumen of the gut is
    increased exchange surface provided by their membranes
  10. interstitial fluid
    provides the exchange of materials between blood and body cells
  11. multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an internal pond because
    cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes
  12. tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up
  13. an exchange surface is in direct contact with the external environment in the
  14. the epithelium type with the shortest diffusion distance is
    simple squamous epithelium
  15. thethe lining of the smallest tubules in the kidneys is composed of
    epithelial tissue
  16. connective tissue
  17. stratified cuboidal epithelium is
    several layers of box-like cells
  18. cnnetive tissue have
    relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix
  19. the fibers responsible for the elastic resistance of tendns are
    collagenous fibers
  20. ear lobe
    elastin fibers
  21. fibroblasts secret
    protins for connt. tissue
  22. blood is best classified as connt tissue bc
    its cells can be separated from each other by an extracellular matrix
  23. muscles are joined to bones by
  24. cartilage is
    connective tissue
  25. bones are held together at joints by
  26. matrix of connt tissue is apparent in
    actin and myosin of muscle
  27. nucleus of tyupical nerve cell is found in
    cell body
  28. all types of muscle tissue have
    interactions between actin and myosin
  29. skeletal muscle fibers are both
    striated and voluntary
  30. cardiac muscle is both
    striated and branched
  31. internal organs other than heart
    smooth muscle
  32. food moves along the digestive tract as result of contratctions by
    smooth muscles
  33. cells lining the air sacs in lungs make up
    simple squam epithelium
  34. bodys automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal envrio is termed
  35. properly functioning homeostatic control syst is
    kidneys excrete salt into urine when dietary sat levels rise
  36. effetors role in homeostatic responses is observable when
    increase in body temp results in shivering
  37. positive feedback
    nurising infant sucking increases the secretion of a milk releasing hormone in mother
  38. positive feed back differs from neg. feedback in that
    effectors response in pos feedback is in the same direction as the initiating stimlulus rather then opposite it
  39. flight muscles for use on a cool morning hawkmouth moths
    rapidly contrac and relax these muscles to generate metabolic warmth
  40. ectotherm is more liekly to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm bc
    ectotherm invests little energy int emp regulation
  41. humans can lose, but not gain, heat through process of
  42. ectothermic organism that has few or no options when it comes to its behavioral ability to adjust its body temp is
    sea star, marine invertebrate
  43. overheated and sick dog has an impaired thermoregulatory response if it
    increases its body temp to match the environment temp
  44. endothermy
    involves production of heat through metabolism
  45. panting observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by
  46. organism that has only behavioral controls over its ody temp is the
    green frog
  47. most amphibians and land-dwelling invertebrates
    are ectothermic organisms
  48. temp-regulating center of vertebrate animals in
  49. female burmese python incubating her eggs warms them using
    shivering themogenesis
  50. fever, but raises body temp in other bacterially infected animals, including lizards, fishes and cockroaches
    change in thermostat - set point
  51. ingested foods in snakes are typically digested by
    enzymatic hydrolysis
  52. seasonal changes in snake activity are explained by
    the snake is more active in summer bc it can gain body heat by conduction
  53. best time to measure an animals's basal metabolic rate is when
    it is resting and has not eaten its first meal of the day
  54. standard metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate
    are both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state
  55. for an adult human female, the metaolic of pregnancy and lactation are
    5-8 percent more than when she was non pregnant
  56. body size increase in birds
    rate of energy use per cell decreases
  57. least reliable indicator of an animal's metabolic rate is the amount of
    water consumed in one day
  58. deer mice in warm climates and penguins in cold climates differ in their energy budgets in that
    deer mice use a greter proportion of their metabolic energy to maintain body temp
  59. body temp in ground squirrel
    varies between 5 and 37
  60. non hibernating squirrel the daily expenditure of metabolic energy is
    always greater then the basal metabolic rate
  61. winter acclimatization in mammals can include
    hibernation through the season of extreme cold
  62. hibernation and estivation are both examples of
    evaporative cooling
  63. panting by overheated dog is
    evaporative cooling
  64. metabolism of specialiezed brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during
    non-shivering thermogenesis
  65. moth preparing for lfight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via
    shivering thermogenesis
Card Set
ch 40