Euro Chapter 18: The Scientific Revolution

  1. The Scientific Revolution was caused by...
    • 1. The Renaissance
    • a. Interest in old math
    • b. Patronage for scientific development
    • 2. Navigational Problems
    • 3. Medieval Universities-
    • Gresham-Founds college to solve Navigational Acts
  2. Aristotle
    Perfect Heaven
  3. Ptolemy
    Math=a system of rules
  4. Copernicus
    • Beliefs:
    • Sun-centered
    • "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"-Star's movement due to Earth's rotation
    • 1572-Bright star emerges
    • 1577-Comet goes across the sky
  5. Luther and Calvin
    Hate Copernicus Theory
  6. Tycho Brahe
    • Danish
    • Mass of Data
  7. Johannes Kepler
    • Three Laws of Planetary Motion:
    • 1. 1609-Ellipses
    • 2. Planets move at different speeds
    • 3. Orbit related to distance from the sun
  8. Galileo Galilei
    • Repeatable experimentation
    • Telescope-4 moons of Jupiter
    • Concept of uniform forms for universal acceleration
    • "Dialogues of the Two Chief Systems of the World"
  9. Isaac Newton
    • Synthesis of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler-"Principia"
    • Laws of Universal Gravitation and Inertia
  10. Francis Bacon
    • Empiricism-experimental research
    • INDUCTIVE Reasoning
  11. Rene Descartes
    • DEDUCTIVE Reasoning
    • Cartesian Dualism-Physical and Spiritual being
    • Connection between Algebra and Geometry
  12. World view changes because...
    • a. Methods of science-Reason (The scientific approach)
    • b. Idea of progress
    • c. Beginning of Social Sciences
  13. Why was France the place of the Enlightenment?
    • a. French=International language of the educated elite
    • b. Absolutist power not as strong
    • c. Philophes-Dedicated, organized
  14. Why the Enlightenment?
    • a. The Scientific Revolution
    • b. Travel literature grows-Relative Truth
    • c. Question of Religious Truth
    • d. John Locke's-"Essay Concerning Human Understanding"-Tabula Rasa
  15. How did the Enlightenment spread?
    • a. Satire and Double Meaning
    • b. Under the Cloak publications
  16. Isms
    • Empiricism
    • Rationalism
    • Relativism
    • Experimentalism
    • Skepticism
    • Atheism
    • Deism
  17. T. Hobbes
    • "The Leviathan"
    • Humans=Bad
    • People give Gov't power to protect
    • Suck it up
    • Sovereignty favored in Gov't
    • Upper class likes
    • Conservative
  18. J. Locke
    • "Essay Concerning the Human Understanding", "Second Treatise of Civil Government"
    • Blank slate=People
    • People give Gov't power to protect natural rights
    • Rebel
    • Sovereignty in People
    • Constitutional Monarchy
    • Middle class favored
    • Moderate
  19. J.J. Rousseau
    • "Social Contract"
    • Humans=Good, Society corrupts
    • General will
    • Sovereignty in General will
    • Democracy/Dictatorship favored
    • Lower class
    • Radical
  20. Fontenelle:
    • "Conversations of plurality of lords"-skepticism
    • "Eulogies of scientist"-Scientific and superstitious, satirical
  21. Boyle
    "Historical and Critical Dictionary"-beliefs differ religious toleration doubt
  22. Montesquieu
    • "Persian Letter"-Relativism
    • "Spirit of Laws"=Government that is best separate powers (admires Britain)
  23. Voltaire
    • Hates intolerance, free speech advocate, radical
    • Conservative:
    • Politically-works for other forms of Gov't (not democracy)
    • Economically and Socially-not want equality
    • Radical: Challenges church, source of intolerance
  24. Madame Chatelet
    Banned b/c she is a woman, spread ideas of others
  25. Diderot and Alembert
    "Encyclopedia"-17 volumes, advocate Science and Art, critical on religion-REASON
  26. d'Holbach
    "System of Nature"-atheist, still dogmatic
  27. Hume
    Mind a group of impression, question reason itself-Scientific Experimentation only, hurts EL
  28. Condorcet
    • "Progress of the Human Mind"-Progress of Reason, Establishment of Liberty
    • One day, death only comes from old age and accidents
  29. Gibbon
    "Progress of Mankind"-never go back to barbarism
  30. Kant
    • Free press
    • Ideas flow with EL follow
    • Reading Revolution-French writers use him to publish
  31. Geoffrin
  32. Beccaria
    • Prevent crime through certainty, not severity
    • Excess punishment-Barbarity
    • Penalties scaled to the offense
  33. Smith
    "The Wealth of Nations"-The Invisible Hand (Self interest that benefits the Public) and Unreasonableness of Restraints on Market (Good for economy, bad for people)
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Euro Chapter 18: The Scientific Revolution
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