Wagner brought which musical genre to a climax, and with which pieces?
He brought German Romantic opera to a climax with the Flying Dutchman, Tannhauser, and Lohengrin.
Wagner synthesized all arts into opera. What was the term for this?
A music drama.
What was the term for the systems of conveying meanings and ideas through motivic associations?
What was Wagner's most important essay, when was it written, and how many volumes was it?
Opera and Drama. 1851. 2 volumes.
Gesamtkunstwek means what?
total or collective artwork, incorporating other arts into music, such as scene design, staging, and action.
Wagner's later operas were considering what?
List Wagner's music dramas.
The Ring of Nibelung premiered in Bayreuth, Tristan and Isolde, The Mastersigners of Nuremburg, and Parsiful.
What is a leitmotiv?
a brief recurring musical idea connected to some character, thing, event, or emotion in a music drama. They are the basic thematic material of the music, both vocal and orchestral. They are used constantly, and undergo development and variation to follow the drama.
Wagner creates a new relationship between voice and orchestra? What is unique about this?
The traditional hierarchy of voice and orchestra is reversed: the orchestral web is the chief factor in the music, and the vocal lines are part of the musical texture, whereas in traditional opera the voices lead, and the orchestra supports and comments.
What is an Endless Melody?
music isn't divided into seperate numbers.
music is continuous through each act because the orchestra maintains continuity.
doesn't have balanced phrases, regular cadences, and repitition of the traditional aria: instead, he uses free, long-flowing lines.
Wagner carried chromaticism to the limit, and lead to atonality in which opera?
Tristan and Isolde
Tristan und Isolde. Give everything.
Genre: Excerpt from a music drama
Characteristics: The highly chromatic language is important in expressing the emotional world of the characters.
Much of the music, both orchestral and vocal, is woven through leitmotives.
Wagner's influences on the musical world:
Ideal of opera as a drama with music, words, staging, and action, all intimately linked, affected virtually all later opera.
Minimizing divisions within an act and using the orchestra to mantain continuity.
His use of leitmotives was imitated by many composers of opera, and became a standard practice for film and television music.