1. Hyperplasia:___________________
    cells proliferate to forma tumor = neoplasm
  2. Benign tumor is a tumor that?
    A benign tumor does not metastasize
  3. metastasis:_________________
    is when individual cancer cells detach themselves froma tumor and travel via blood vessels or lymphatic vessels to new locations in the body to establish secondary tumors
  4. A tumor that does metastasize is _________
    malignant tumor
  5. What tumor is the source of the cells that form another tumor called _______________, a secondary tumor.

    the primary tumor is the source
  6. this tumor arises from epithelial cells
  7. this tumor arises from connective tissues including bone and cartliage or muscles cells
  8. this tumor is the rarest family of tumors
  9. this tumor arises from homopoietic cells and white blood cells
    leukemias and lymphomas
  10. this kind of tumor arises from nuerons and neuroglia of the nervous system
    neoplastic neuromas
  11. this in not an example of a carcinoma:

    D) skin melanoma
  12. adenoma
    benign tumor: has not gone through metastasis
  13. adenocarcinoma
    a benign tumor that has left the cell to become a malignant tumor
  14. Whats wrong with this statement?
    A benign tumor is large and has an irregular nuclear shape. A Malignant tumor Has a well defined boundry and has a High cytoplasmic to nuclear ratio.
    • Benign tumor: is small, and regular in shape
    • Malignant tumor: poorly defined boundry
  15. What is wrong with this statement?
    Cancer cells always display abnormalities in chromosome number and structure.
    cancer sometimes display abnormalities in chromosome number and structure. THEY DONT FOLLOW ANY RULES
  16. Whats wrong with this statement?
    Cancer cells originate from many cells at a time.
    most cancers originate from a single cell that becomes cancerous
  17. 2 types of carcinogens
    chemical carcinogens and radiation
  18. These agents cause genetic changes ; somatic mutations
  19. transforms normal cells into cancer cells
  20. A thymine dimer is formed due to exposure of?
    carcinogens; in particular UV radiation. Radiation is a family of carcinogens
  21. chemical carcinogens react with _____
  22. Generally the increase of incidence of cancer is related to this________. Its is due to?
    increase in age.. Due to the accumlation of random mutations in a single lineage of cells
  23. typically.. how many mutations must accumulate in a single lineage of cells to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell?
    at least 5 mutations
  24. tumor progression
    a muti-step process that desribes the accumulation of mutiations in a cell to tranform it from normal into a cancer cell. This usually takes many years
  25. Whats wrong with this statement? As a cell becomes cancerous, cell division decreases and apoptosis increases.
    • cell division increases
    • cell apoptosis decreases
  26. The absence of replicative cell senescence is due to 2 things.
    disrupt cell cycle checkpoint controls

    mutations that maintain telomerase activity
  27. define: cancer stem cell
    • capable of unlimited cell division
    • cancers arise from these cell types
  28. relate angiogenesis and tumors
    tumors secrete this growth factor that indice angiogenesis; the formation of new blood vessels
  29. these cells doe not differntiate normaly and are immature and cannot perform their normal function
  30. cancer cells exhibit ____________ anchorage dependance
  31. anchorage dependance
    a cell must be attached to the ECM to grow and divide
  32. Whats false?

    D) a and b
  33. There are 2 classes of chemical carcinogens
    • tumor initiators
    • tumor promoters
  34. This type of chemical carcinogen is mutagenic
    tumor initiators
  35. this type of chemical carcinogen is not mutagenic
    tumor promoters
  36. tumor progression
    the years it takes for mutations to cause a cancerous cell. The accumulation of random mutations
  37. why would a cancer cell not go through apoptosis?
    • 1) maintain telomerase activity through mutations
    • 2) genetic and epigenetic changes that DISRUP CELL CHECK POINT SYSTEMS
  38. In relation to cancer, what causes angiogenesis?
    a tumor can secrete hormones to stimulate angiogenesis which cause the formation of new blood vessels
  39. This condition where cells do not differentiate normally. (Seen in Malignant cancer cells)
  40. A chemical carcinogens that promote increase cell proliferation
    tumor promoters
  41. A chemical carcinogen that causes mutations
    tumor initiators
  42. This mutant gene promotes excessive cell proliferation. What is the non-mutated gene?
    • oncogenes.
    • the non-mutated gene is proto-oncogenes
  43. These genes code for proteins that prevent excessive cell proliferation
    tumor supressor genes
  44. This kind of mutation deletes both copies of the suppressor gene
    underactivity mutation
  45. the Overactivity mutation creates this
    • gain of function;
    • creates oncogene
  46. this gene is respinsible for repressing 50% of human cancers
  47. this gene acts as a GRP to activate genes that trigger G1 arrest at the cellular restriction point
  48. whats wrong with this statement?
    People with the same cancer will have differnt combinations of mutations - not often the same mutations
    nothing. the statement is true
  49. this cell has decreased anchorage dependance
    cancer cell
  50. this cell type can move from cell to cell; a new location. What is this called?
    cancer cell. Metastasis
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