test 3. 237

  1. Jacksonian Democracy Era
    began with the election to the presidency of andrew jackson in 1828, the prestige of chief executives was enhanced; emphasized political and social equality, government by the common man over government by an aristocracy
  2. Administrative efficiency
    to centralize administrative authority and responsibility in the hands of one person- the governor
  3. preaudit
    approval of spending before it actually takes place and is normally done by the controller
  4. post audit
    review after money is spent to see whether it was spent according to legislative intent and without corruption, it is the responsibility of the state auditor
  5. Plea barganing
    defendant pleads guilty in return for a reduced charge and most likely a less severe penalty
  6. lame duck
    have diminshed power because he or she will soon leave office and can't run again; ability to succeed one self in office means you wont be a lame duck
  7. incremental budgeting
    traditional system using last year's figures as the basis for current calculations
  8. common law
    interpreted individually by each state; judge made law that originated in england from decisions shaped according to existing custom
  9. political incorporation
    where minorities are part of the dominant city making policy-making coalition on minority-related issues is the exception rather than the rule
  10. mediation
    impartial 3rd party assists the disputants in reaching a voluntary settlement
  11. arbitration
    calls for one or more persons to hear the arguments in a dispute, review the evidence and reach a desicion or award
  12. community policing
    ambiguous because community is difficult to define, 'reinventing government'
  13. satellite cities
    on the fringes of metropolitan areas low density, heavily landscaped
  14. special districts
    most often perform a single fuction and they're appealing because they're superimposed on the existing structure of government and leave municipal boundaries untouched
  15. annexation
    city extends it's boundaries by absorving adjacent land
  16. service style
    serious crimes where treated seriously, but minor infractions, particularly when they involved juveniles, were handled more inoformaly
  17. redlining
    refused to make loans for construction in certain parts of cities they considered too risky
  18. edgeless cities
    a form of sprawling office development that doesn't have the densit or cohesiveness of edge cities but accounts for 2/3 of office space found outside downtowns
  19. judicial review
    by state supreme courts, to overrule, declare unconstitutional, acts passed by state legislatures
  20. fragmented government
    little or no coordination or control by a central agency
  21. recidivism
    released prisoners who return to criminal behavior after release
  22. watchman style
    police behavior emphasized maintenance or order in public places, rather than law enforcement
Card Set
test 3. 237
test 3. 237