Humanities 2

  1. the movement that divided Western Christianity into the Roman Catholic and the new Protestant faith. It spawned many new reformed creeds of faith, followers of the newly reformed faith were called "Protestant"
  2. Reformation
  3. followers of the newly reformed faith, and because they of their protest against the Catholic doctrine.
  4. (1483-1546) a reformed scholar. A German lawyer who became a monk. In October of 1517 challenged the doctrines of the HRCC by nailing a series of 95 thesis on the wooden doors of Wittenberg Cathedral. Will lead to the first reformation that creates "Lutherism", he also started writing hymns.
    Martin Luther
  5. born in France, leads the 2nd wave of reform in Geneva Switzerland people will follow his radical views. Forms Calvinists, Haguenots, the Puritans pilgrims ( known as strict moralist ). Institutes the "Blue Laws" a moral regime against anything thought to be unholy,
    John Calvin 1509-1564
  6. the belief that God predetermines before birth which Christians will gain salvation.
  7. born in Genoia Italy, an Italian explorer who discovered the "New World". Funded by Spain, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand in 1492
    Christopher Columbus- (1451-1506)
  8. the depiction of scenes from ordinary life.
    Genre Painting
  9. appealed to the pope to dissle him marriage to wife Catherine of Aragon because he had no male heirs. When the pope refused he split the Roman Church and established himself as head of the Anglican Church. The Anglican Church maintain the the Catholic religious belief, but opposed Lutheranism.
    Henry VIII, Anglican Church ruled England1509-1547
  10. Later renamed the Globe it is the Theatre where many of William Shakespere plays were performed. Built on the Thames River's south bank, where they were free of the city's censorship. The theathers were also used for prosititution.
    The "Wooden O"
  11. the most acclaimed dramatist of the English language, the genius of Elizabethan theater. Famous for great tragedies such as "Hamlet", "Macbeth", "Othello", and "King Lear".
    William Shakespere-( 1564-1616)
  12. in 1545 the council of Trent meeting with the bishops from the Holy Roman Catholic Church to reform the Catholic faith and start an offensive attack on the Protestanism. They met from 1545-1563. Counter attack against the reformers and they will re-evaluate their faith. They published "The Index of the Forbidden Book".
    Counter Reformation
  13. in the 1520's Italy has a new style of art that uses exaggeration, distortion and expressiveness. Will emerge to free the artist from the typical Renaissance style. Parmiginino (1503-1540) violates the law of physic in his painting "The Madona with the Long Neck", considered the greast mannerist artist.
  14. Spirit in Italy combined a love for classical beauty and wisdom, with an innovative spirit and unfailing belief in human reason and creativity.
  15. the late medieval attitude of compromise between classicium and Christianity and it would dominate thinking and are in Italy for the next century. During the Renaissance it is a belief in Italy that combines love of classical beauty and wisdom with the belief in human reasom and creativity of the 15th century. The glorification of humans.
  16. the act of hiring and paying scholars/ artists to create beauty for your personal, private, civic pride or glorification of God.
  17. the city officals declared a competition to decorate a new set of doors for the Florence Baptistery. They commanded artist to submit competition panels depicting Abraham sacrifice of his son Isaac. The winner was 21 year old Lorenzo, Ghiberti(1378-1455).
    Florence 1401
  18. rules 1469-1492becomes a great patrion of the arts. " Lorenzo the Magnificent" will spend a lot of money and hires Michelangelo.
    Lorenzo De' Medici
  19. indicates Ghiberti's mastery sculptural storytelling. The panel tell different stories in an unified narrative (genesis 2:4-3-24), also known as the east doors. It took 25 years to complete.
    The Gates of Paradise
  20. solidity and depth created by lights and dark shading, giving us prospective. Enabled Italian painters to render three- dimensional objects by the convincing of shadow.
  21. (1444-1510) painter hired by the Medici family. Takes classical mythology and blend it with Christian symbolism famous for"The Birth of Venus" and "Birth of Spring".
  22. sculptor from Florence who reinvited the free standing bronze nude in sculpting " The David" 1st statue of it's kind since the acient Greeks. A gifted sculptor hired by the Medici family and did a lot of famous statues. Assisted Ghiberti on the Baptistery doors of Florence Cathedral.
    Donatello (1386-1466)
  23. 89 yeara of rival sculpting with Dontello. Hired full time by the Medici family at the age of 19. Travelled back and forth from Rome to Florence (his birth place). Famous for combining classical values with biblical themes in his statues. Produce the " Pieta " in Rome (1498-1499), The "David" in Florence (1501-1504) a young classical nude male standing in a heroic position. By the age of 22 he had established himself as a rival to Donatello
    Michelangelo - (1475-1564)
  24. his fierce sermons made him a virtual dicator of the city for 4 years (1494-1498) " a fiery Dominican monk elected 1494-1498 who condemned the corruption of Florence and was burned at the stake in 1948.
    Savonarola (1457-1498)
  25. 1497 Savonarola supporters created a bonfire piled with dice, playing cards, cosmetics, indecent books, pictures and other things of sinful luxury. The bonfire was to urge the pleasure loving sinners of Florence to toss the items which caused them to sin in the fire.
    Bonfire of the Vanities
  26. Raphael Raffello Sanzio (1483-1520) known as Raphael becomes Romes busiest and most beloved artist during the high Renaissance. Born on the outskirts of Florence, at age 22 becomes a master painter. He opens a school of arts in Florence and dies at 37 of having to many women
    Raphael (1483-1520)
  27. Born and raised in Florence Italy famous for writing " The Prince" the first attempt in the Christian era to analyze politics from an entirely secular view point. He was an active Florentine diplomat for 14 years until he was dismissed from his bost in 1512.
    Machiavelli (1469-1527)
  28. born and raised near Florence ( town of Vinci) move to Milan Italy and died in France. He was considered the most diverse and enigmatic talent of the Renaissance. A true Renaissance genius most famous works were painting and sketch books. His notebooks over 150, the Mona Lisa, Madonna of the Rocks and The Last Supper. He was trained as a painter and sculptor in Florence.
    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
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Humanities 2
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