what is the focusing of conscious attention on a limited number of environmental cues to the exclusion of others of higher or more immediate priority. It is the number one human performance factor causing a loss of situational awareness?
what occurs when there is too much to attend to at one time?
what is the interruption of conscious attention to a task by a non-task-related cue?
What is the adaptation and subsequent inattention to a cue?
what is due to something learned so well that it’s performed at a subconscious level; however, in a new or
different situation, the old response is inappropriate?
Describe the IMSAFE checklist.
What is the approximate percentage of oxygen, nitrogen and other gases at 18,000 feet MSL?
21 percent oxygen, 78 percent nitrogen and 1 percent other gases
What are the common units used to measure atmospheric pressure? what are the measurements at sea level?
- 29.92 inHg
- 760 mmHg
- 14.7 (psi)
What represents the notation for the partial pressure of gases?
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen, PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide, PN2 partial pressure of nitrogen.
What is the temperature lapse rate up to approximately 35,000 feet?
About 2 °C per 1,000 feet
Describe the space equivalent zone.
exist from 50k feet and above, requires protection in a sealed container
What are the altitude ranges for the physiological dificient zone and what occurs in this space?
10k-50K ft, there is a reduced amount of atmospheric pressure which makes it difficult to sustain normal physiological functions.
The physiological zone extends with in what altitudes? what is significant about this zone?
sea level- 10K, it is the zone the human body has adapted to.
what law explains that when volume is constant, the pressure of a gas increases or decreases proportionally to an increase or decrease in its
what law explains that when the temperature remains constant, as in the human body, a volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure surrounding it?
what law explains the effects of pressure changes in the ears, sinuses, teeth and gastrointestinal tract.
A gas will diffuse from an area of higher concentration or pressure to an area of lower concentration or pressure until equilibrium is reached,this law explains how oxygen moves out of the lungs into the bloodstream?
The law of gaseous diffusion
if pressure is reduced above a solution, some gas will come out of the solution, this law explains why a soda pop bubbles after it is opened.
what law explains how exposure to a high altitude can reduce the available oxygen?
The purpose of respiration is to get___________into the body and remove excess___________.
What is the site of gas exchange in the lung between the atmosphere and the blood?
What is the normal breathing rate of an average adult?
12-16 breaths per minute
What is the most important factor in the control of ventilation under normal conditions?
what system transports and distributes nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and removes waste products of metabolism?
The circulatory system
What is the main function of red blood cells?
During ascent (as ambient pressure decreases), what happens to gases trapped within body cavities?
what are the four areas of the body influenced by the mechanical effects of trapped gases are?
DCS is caused by_________coming out of solution in the tissues and blood.
what is hypoxia?
A state of oxygen deficiency in the blood
what identifies the signs and symptoms of hypoxia?
- Signs are what can be seen by others.
- Symptoms are what is recoginzed by the individual
How do you treat for hypoxia?
- Max O2 under pressure (gangload)
- check connections
- breath at a rate less then normal
- descend below 10k
when there is a reduction in PO2 in the lungs due to exposure to low barometric pressure you will become what?
when the O2 carrying capacity of the blood is reduced by reducing the functional hemogloban available, you are suffering from?
What occurs when reduction in cardiac output, pooling of the blood, or restriction of blood flow reduces O2 delivery?
what is the results when the O2 delivered to the cells cannot be used for energy production?
What is the most dangerous characteristic of hypoxia?
Expansion of gases which cause discomfort that occur on ascent happen where?
GI tract and teeth
What are the types of DCS?
- The Bends
- Neurological Manifestations
- Sikn manifestations
How do you treat for DCS?
100% max oxygen
what are the indications of rapid decompression?
- explosive noise
- windblast/flying debris
What can reduce your TUC by as much as 50%?
What is the condition in which rate and depth of breathing is abnormally increased?
Hyperventillation causes an excessive loss of what from the lungs and blood?
what are the main reasons for aircraft pressurization?
to reduce/prevent decompression sickness and hypoxia.
What is the innermost layer of tissue of the eye?
What are the rods and cones?
light sensitive cells distributed over the retina
What is the primary function of focal vision?
Recognize and identify objects, also provides visual acuity and depth perception
What is the primary function of peripheral vision?
To orient oneself relative to the environment
In midair collisions, the primary peripheral visual cue of ______is not available. Therefore, you must acquire the target aircraft with your _____vision, using the scanning technique.
List the 4 sensory systems enabling you to maintain orientation, equilibrium and balance
- Seat of the pants
What is the system primarily used for orientation?
In the absence of visual cues, what system becomes dominant?
what is the primary means the visual system uses to collect orientation cues is?
What are the vestibular systems two subsystems?
Semicircular canal and the Otolith organs
What detects angular accelerations and is responsible for somatogyral illusions?
What detects linear accelerations and is responsible for somatogravic illusions?
what system is useless as an orientation system in the absence of accurate visual cues?
Name the three somatogyral illusion.
- The leans
- The graveyard spin/spiral
Noise (sound) intensity perceived by the human ear is measured in?
The two types of hearing loss you can suffer are?
Conductive and Sensoral
A positive Gz force is defined as the force being applied from the?
head to the feet
A negative Gz force is defined as a force being applied from?
The feet to head
transverse g is described as what?
a force from applied front to back
List the five factors determining the physical effects of G forces.
- Previous exposure
The elements of the AGSM are?
- muscle tensing
- Cyclic breathing
Differentiate between blackout and G-LOC.
- Blackout results in loss of vision.
- G-LOC results in unconciousness.
What are the two phases of G-LOC?
- Absolute incapacitation (Unconscious)
- Relative incapacitation (Not fully alert)