What are some general characteristics of Mycobacterium?
- slow growing
- Fastidious growth
- lipid rich cell wall
- acid fast chain
- non spore forming
who was the person developing growth media for TB
what are some diagnostic ways that detect latent and active infection?
- Injection of purified protein derivate wait 2 days and measure the diameter of skin.
- ** problem with technique is that it may give false positive result for people who were vaccinated with BCG or infected with non.virulant mycobacteria.
- ** X-ray is done for conformation
Who was the first person to usher in a new era of TB and what is a sanatorium?
- Dr. Edward livingstone
- Sanatorium is a place that people with TB would go that has fresh air , good food and a lot of rest
when was the national association for study and prevention of TB found and what was its mission?
It was found in 1904 and its mission was to prevent public spitting.
what is the vaccine for TB?
- BCG is the vaccine that is been using since 1920 .
- It has a good efficiency to protect against Pediatric TB however not efficient in protecting adults from pulmonary TB.
What was the first drug used for TB treatment?
Streptomycin which was found by Selman Waksman
Why is research for TB important?
- because last effective diagnostic for latent TB was found in 1891
- also because the last vaccine was established in 1921
- the last new first line drug was 1967
- these would all lead to
- . inefficiency of chemotherapy
- . drug resistance
- . inefficiency of BCG vaccine
what are some epidemiological factors associated with TB?
- 1/3 of worlds population is infected
- 8-10 M cases per year
- 80% in developing countries
- multidrug resistance in over 100 countries
- 5% of cases are MDR
- XDR is on the raise
- high incidence for HIV/TB coinfection (30 to 70% of patients with HIV die of TB)
what are first line drugs for TB?
What are second line drugs for TB?
- Floroquinoles ( levafloxacin..)
- Aminoglycoside ( Streptomycin )>injectable
- Ethionamide, protionamide, cycloserine, terizidone, p.aminosalicylic > oral bacteriostatic
- amoxicilin, clavulante,linezolid,clarithromycin > agents with unclear function.
what are some treatments for TB currently? how about MDR?
- 2 month with 4 first line
- 4 month with rifampin and isoniazide
- 18-24 month with second line drugs
- Dots has 50% cure rate