nav by use of predetermined vectors of wind and true airspeed and precalculated heading, groundspeed, and estimated time of arrival
What is Pilotage?
Navigation by reference only to landmarks
What is Radio Nav?
Nav by use of radio aids, that is, nav signals broadcast by radio stations on the ground or from satellites
what is Inertial Navigation?
nav by use of Gyroscopic Equipment or electronic computers that provide a continuous display of position
what is Celestial Navigation?
Nav by measuring angles to Celestial Aids (sun, moon, stars etc...) to determine position on earth
What is satellite navigation?
nav by use of positioning & guidance systems using transmitters and receivers that provide pinpoint positioning accuracy via orbiting satellites
name 6 methods of Navigation.
Pilotage, Dead Reckoning, Celestial nav, Radio nav, Inertial nav, and Satellite nav
Graticule is a geometrical pattern of intersection circles.
What are Meridians of Longitude?
Semi Great Circles join the true or geographic poles also called true meridians.
How are meridians measured?
measured from 0 to 180 degrees EAST & WEST!
what is the Prime Meridian?
the prime meridian is meridian that passes through Greenwich, England and is numbered 0 degrees.
What is the Meridian opposite the Prime Meridian?
the meridian opposite the Prime Meridian is the 180th and is called the International Date Line
what are Meridians of Longitude measured in?
they are measured in Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
What are parallels or Latitude?
Circles on the earth's surface whose lines lie parallel to the Equator
What are parallels of latitude measure from?
Measured from 0 to 90 degrees NORTH & SOUTH of the Equator
What is the Equator?
the Equator is a great Circle on the surface of the earth lying Equidistant from the poles
What are parallels of latitude measured in?
They are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. there are 60 minutes in a degree and 60 seconds in a minute.
What is an Apparent Solar Day?
the Time between one apparent passage of the sun over a meridian and the Next passage over that same meridian. Varies throughout the year!
What is the Purpose of "mean sun"? and what is it?
the purpose is to provide a convenient method of measuring time. It is an imaginary sun assumed to travel at a Uniform rate of speed throughout the year.
What is a Mean Solar Day?
the Interval between 2 successive passages of the mean sun.
what is Local Mean Time?
the mean time on any particular meridian
what is Co-ordinated Universal Time or Greenwich Mean Time?
the time over the Prime Meridian
What is a Great Circle?
a great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere whose plane passes through the centre of of the sphere and which, therefore, cuts the sphere into 2 equal parts.
True or false. Flying a Great Circle route for long-distance flights is a disadvantage?
What is a Rhumb Line?
a curved line on the surface of the earth, cutting all the Meridians at the same angle
True of false. All parallels of latitude are Rhumb lines?
when flying along a Rhumb line, your heading will...?
B) remain constant
Explanation: your airplane is going 1 way. flying a great circle is rounded and a Rhumb line is straight.
what is a bearing?
the angle between the meridian that passes through the observer and a great circle joining the observer to the object being observed. the angle is measured clockwise from the meridian through 360 degrees.
what is a heading?
the angle between the meridian over which an airplane is flying and the line representing the direction the airplanes nose is pointing, measured clockwise
what is magnetic variation?
the Angle between the true meridian and the magnetic meridian which the compass needle lies. also known as magnetic declination
What are Isogonic lines (isogonals)?
lines on a chart joining places of equal variation
what are Agonic lines?
lines drawn on a chart with no variation
what is deviation?
th angle through which the compass needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian due to Magnetic fields associated with the metal in the airplane
What is Magnetic Dip?
the earth's line of force are horizontal at the equator but becomes vertical towards the poles. this causes the compass to dip in higher latitudes
true or false. on turns to the north, northerly turning error causes the compass to lag?
FALSE. on turns from the north, not to the north.
true or false. on turns from the south, northerly turning error causes the compass to lead?
When is the greatest effect of northernly turning error?
The greatest effect is experienced when the turn starts to near to the north and south headings and will be less noticeable when the start of the turn is nearer to east and west headings
What does A.N.D.S. stand for?
when do acceleration and deceleration errors occur?
they occur on east and west headings. (cause the compass to register a turn)
true or false. Acceleration and Deceleration errors occur on north and south headings?
FALSE only on east & west headings
what are the 4 basic elements in map construction?
What is scale?
relationship between unit of distance on the chart to the distance on the earth that the unit represents. can be fraction/ratio or graduated scale.
what is layer tinting?
layer tinting is when the chart is couloured to represent different layers of elevation.
an elevation legend is printed to show what colours are used for different elevations.
what are contour lines?
lines drawn on a chart connecting points of equal elevationabove mean sea level
the closer to contours, the steeper to slope of a hill or valley.
describe spot heights.
numbers on a map which show the height above sea level at any particular point.
what is wind?
air moving horizontally
what is indicated airspeed?
airplane's speed as indicated by is ASI
what is true airspeed?
speed of the airplane in relative to the air . callibrated speed corrected for temperature and density.
what is groundspeed?
speed of the airplane in relative to to ground. (wind affects groundspeed)
what is a track?
a track is the direction an airplane intends to travel over the ground
what is track made good?
actual path travelled by the airplane over the ground
what is drift?
wind blowing from either side of an airplane causing it to drift away from its intended track
explain the one-in-sixty rule.
an error in track of 1 degree will cause an error in position of about 1 mile in a distance of 60 miles