1. polar molecule
    the unequal distribution of electrons
  2. cohesion
    when hydrogen bonds hold the substance together
  3. surface tension
    a measure of how diff. it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
  4. adhesion
    clinging of one substance to another
  5. kinetic energy
    the energy of motion; the faster molecule moves the greater its kinetic energy
  6. heat
    a form of energy
  7. temperature
    measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules
  8. calorie (cal)
    • amount of heat it takes to raise the temp. of 1g
    • of water by 1oC
  9. kilocalorie (kcal)
    1000 cal is the quantity of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1oC (this is the calorie in food pkg.)
  10. joule (j)
    one joule= -.239 cal; one calorie = 4.184J
  11. specific heat
    mount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temp. by 1oC
  12. heat of vaporization
    liquid must absorb 1g of it to be converted from liquid to gas
  13. evaporative cooling
    the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down; occurs b/c the hottest molecules are most likely to leave as gas
  14. solution
    completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
  15. solvent
    the dissolving agent
  16. aqueous solution
    one which water is the solvent
  17. hydration shell
    the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
  18. hydrophillic
    “water loving”; some don’t dissolve
  19. colloid
    a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid ex; cotton
  20. hydrophobic
    water fearing; nonionic and nonpolar molecules
  21. molecular mass
    sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule
  22. molarity
    the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
  23. hydroxide ion
    the water molecule that lost a proton which has a charge of 1-
  24. acid
    substance that inc. the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  25. base
    reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (reduce H+ by accepting hydrogen ions); concentration with higher OH- than H+
  26. buffers
    substances that minimize changes in the in the concentration of H+ and OH-
  27. acid precipitation
    refers to the rain, snow or fog with the pH lower than pH 5.2
Card Set