Cognitive psychology

  1. Events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than those that are less easily remembered. We estimate frequency/probability in terms of how easily we can remember examples of something
    Availability heuristic
  2. Correlation appears to exist, but either does not exist or is much weaker than assumed. example stereo types.
    Illusory correation
  3. The probability that A comes from B can be determined by now well A resembles properties of B.
    Representative heuristic
  4. Relative properties of different classes in the population.
    Base rate
  5. Proability of two events can not be higher than the probabilty of the single constituents.
    Conjuction rule
  6. The largest number of indivduals randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population.
    Law of large numbers
  7. Tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis and overlook information that argues.
    Confirmation bias
  8. The argument with the most typical example of a category in the premise is the strongest argument.
    Typicality principle
  9. The argument with the greatest coverage of a category is stronger.
    Diversity principle
  10. People are rational, if they have all relevant information they will make a descision that results in the maxium expected utility.
    Economic utility theory
  11. Outcomes that are desirable because they are in the persons best interest. Maximum monetary payoff.
  12. Verbal behavior. Languaged is learned through reinforcement. Rewarded for using correct language, not rewarded for using incorrect language.
    B.F Skinner
  13. Assuming that small samples will be representative of the population from which they were selected
    Small sample fallacy
  14. Underemphasizing important information about base rate (what is more common in the population)
    Base-rate fallacy
  15. We establish an anchor and then make adjustments based on other information
    Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
  16. The tendency to be more sensitive to potential losses than to potential gainsâ—‹ People won’t take a 50/50 bet to win $200 or lose $100, even though the average = $50 gain per bet.
    Loss Aversion
  17. The influence of irrelevant aspects of a situation (i.e. wording of the problem) on decision making
    Framing Effect
  18. Expending additional resources to justify some previous commitment that has not worked well.
    Sunk-Cost Effect
  19. The tendency to prefer inaction to action when engaged in risky decision making.
    Omission Bias
  20. A tendency for individuals to repeat a choice several times in spite of changes in their preferences
    Status Quo Bias
  21. Syntactic structures. Human language coded in the genes. Underlying basis of all language is similar. Saw studying language as a way of studyiing the mind. (Behaviorist say NO!)
    This individual proposed that language acquisition is genetically programmed.
    Noam Chomsky
  22. Goal is to discover psychological process by which humans acquire and process language.
  23. All the words a person understands.
  24. Shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word.
  25. Smallest unit of language that has meaning or grammatical function.
  26. "fill in" missing phonemes based on context of sentence and portion of word presented.
    Phonemic restoration effect
  27. The process of perceiving indivdual words from the continuous flow of the speech signal.
    Speech segmentation
  28. Respond more rapidly to high frequency words (in lexical decision task)
    Word frequency effect
  29. Our ability to acess words in a sentence is affected by sematics. Attempt to figure out what a sentence means as we read it.
    Context effects
  30. Words have more than one meaning. Context clears up ambiguity after all meanings of a word have been breifly accessed.
    Lexical ambiguity
  31. Stimulus activates a representation of the stimulus. Respond more rapidly if activation is still present when stimulus is presented again.
    Lexical priming
  32. Meanings of words and sentences (think dictionary)
  33. Rules for combining words into sentences (think grammar)
  34. Mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases.
  35. More than one possible structure, more than one meaning.
    Syntactic ambiguity
  36. Parser assumes new word is part of the current phrase.
    Late closure
  37. A sentence in which the meaning that seems to be implied at the beginning turns out to be incorrect, based on information presented later in the sentence.
    Garden path sentence
  38. The study of how we understand text and stories.
    Discourse/text processing
  39. This property is important because it allows the reader’s mind to relate information from one part of a story to a different part of the story.
  40. Mental representation of what a text is about. Represent events as if experiencing the situation. Point of view of protagnist.
    Situation model
  41. Freud believed that speech errors are caused by unconscious motivations.
    Slip of the tongue
  42. Exchanging phonemes between words (flighter luid instead of lighter fluid.
    Phoneme exchanges
  43. An incorrect word is substituted for the correct word. Often related to top down processing. Terrain-Train
    Word subsitutions
  44. Conversations go more smoothly if participants have shared knowledge.
    Semantic coordination
  45. Speaker constructs sentences so they include
    -given information
    -new information
    -new information can then become given information
    Given-new contract
  46. Using similar grammatical constructions
    Alice bought me a sandwitch vs. Alice bought a sandwitch for me.
    Syntactic coordination
  47. Production of a specific grammatical construction by one person increases chances other person will use that construction.
    Syntactic priming
  48. The nature of language in a particular culture can affect the way people in that culture think.
    Sapir-whorf hypothesis
  49. Stimuli in same categories are more difficult to discriminate from one another than stimuli in two different categories.
    Categorical perception
  50. Cognitive process by which people start w/info and come to conclusions that go beyond that information.
  51. Reasoning that involves syllogisms in which a conclusion logically follows from premises.
    Deductive reasoning
  52. -two statements called premises
    -third statements called conclusion
    -The conclusion follows from the premises based on the rules of logic.
    -Categorical syllogism
    Describe relation between two categories using all, no, or some. Ex all birds are animals.
  53. -Premise 1: All A are B
    -Premise 2: All B are C
    -Conclusion: Therefore, all A are C
    Aristotle’s “perfect” syllogism
  54. Ask people if conclusion follows logically from premises
  55. Ask people to indicate what logically follows from premises
  56. Use of words all, some, or no (none) creates an over all mood that can influence the evaluation of the conclusion.
    Atmosphere affect
  57. If syllogism is true or agrees with a person
    beliefs, more likely to be judged valid
    Belief bias
  58. A specific situation that is represented in a person’s mind that can be used to help determine the validity of syllogisms. Create, test,
    and revise.
    Mental models
  59. -Two premises and a conclusion
    -first premise has the form “if p, then g”
    - second premise is a statement about “p” or “g”
    -antecedent “if” term
    -consequent “then” term
    Conditional syllogisms
  60. Effect of using real world items in a conditional reasoning problem. Task to determine minimum # of cards to turn over to test a given rule. Ex: E K 4 7 Rule: If there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side. Test: which cards need to be turned over to test the rule? Only need to turn over E and 7.
    The Wason four card problem
  61. To test a rule, you must look for situations that falsify the rule. Most participants fail to do this. When problem is stated in concrete everyday terms, correct responses greatly increase.
    Falsification principle
  62. If A is satisfied, B can be carried out. People are familiar w/rules Ex. If you are at least 21, you can drink alcohol at the bar.
    Permission schema
  63. A way of thinking about cause + effect in the world that is learned as part of experiencing everyday life.
    Pragmatic reasoning schema
  64. Wason task governed by built-in cognitive program for detecting cheating. In contrast to permission schema. Evidence exists both for
    + against each perspective.
    Evolutionary perspective on cognition
  65. In this type of task, participants decide whether a string of letters is a word or not.
    Lexical Decision Task
  66. This approach to parsing takes into account both semantic and syntactic information to determine parsing as a person reads a sentence.
    Interactionist Approach to Parsing
  67. This is the type of structure of language, with small components (ex: phoneme) making up larger components (ex: word) that can make up an even larger component (ex: sentence).
    Hierarchical Structure
  68. This type of inference connects an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence (such as a pronoun).
    Anaphoric Inference
  69. This type of reasoning results in conclusions that are not 100% true and is based on evidence
    Inductive reasioning
  70. The type of valid syllogism is represented in the form “If p then q. Not q. Therefore not p.”
    is called (Hint: affirming/denying the…)
    Denying the Consequent
  71. The law of large numbers states that a larger __________leads to a more representative group of a population
    Sample size
  72. This model of text processing involves a mental representation of what a text is about in terms of objects, locations, and events
    Situation Model of Text Processing
  73. This type of inference involves an inference about tools or methods.
    Instrumental Inference
  74. This characteristic of the physical energy produced by conversational speech is also responsible for making new languages difficult to parse
  75. The First Cognitive Psychologists

    Mental chronometry
    Measures how long cognitive process takes

    Reaction–time (RT) experiment
    Measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus
  76. Flow diagram representing what happens
    as a person directs attention to one stimulus

    Second is a flow diagram for
    broadbent’s filter model of attention.
    Information that goes through the
    filter gets picked up by the detector and stored in memory
  77. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
    o Describes memory as a mechanism that
    processes information through a series of stages
    o Sensory memory: lots of information;
    fades rapidly
    o Short term: 15-20 seconds unless
    o Long term: long periods of time
    Modal Model of Memory
  78. o When the type of task that occurs
    during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval
    Ex: Rhyming-rhyming instead of rhyming-meaning
    o Can result in enhanced memory
    Transfer-approiate processing
Card Set
Cognitive psychology
psych con exam