changes asociated with what 4 things can be seen on a radiograph
what can be examined with radiographs that cannot be seen clinically (3)
periapical regions of teeth
injury produced by an external force
what can trauma affect? (3)
trauma may restult in fractures of teeth and bone and injuries such as (3)
defined as the breaking of a part
fractures may affect (4)
fractures that affect tooth crowns most often inolve
most common fracture
occurs most often in the maxillary central inciosors
with time, root fractures have a tendancy to enlarge bc of (3)
displacement of root fragments
jaw fractures reslult from (3)
film of choice for eval of manibular fractures
tooth displacement involves (2)
luxation (intrusion or extrusion)
abnormal displacement of teeth
refers to the abnormal displacement of teeth into bone
refers to the abnormal displacement of teeth out of bone
teeth that have been luxated should be evaluated by a periapical radiograph and examined for (3)
root and adjacent alveolar bone fractures
damage to the periodontal ligament
complete displacement of a tooth from alveolar bone
is an avulsed tooth seen on a radiograph
no; you see a tooth socket without a tooth
what do you look for in a tooth socket?
what two types of resporption are associated with teeth?
process that is seen with the normal shedding of primary teeth
regressive alteration of tooth structure that is observed when a tooth is subjected to abnormal stimuli
seen along the periphery of the root surface and is often associated with reimplanted teeth, abnormal mechanical forces, trauma, chronic inflammation, tumors and cysts, impacted teeth, or idiopathic causes.
external resorption most often affects
apieces of teeth
how does the apical region appear with external resorption
blunted; length of the root appears shorter than normal
is external resportion detected clinically?
do teeth that have external resportion exibit mobility?
is there effective treatment for external resorption?
occurs within the crown or root of a tooth and involves the pulp chamber, pulp canals, and surrounding dentin
appears as a rount-to-ovoid radiolucency in the midcrown or midroot portion fo a tooth
endodontic therapy may be used for internal resportion when?
when the process has not physically weakened the tooth
when the tooth is weakened what must be done?
what must be obtained before treatment?
size and location of the pulp cavity
what are the common conditions of the pulp cavity seen on radiographs (3)
diffuse calcification of the pulp chamber adn pulp canals of teeth that results in a pulp cavity of decreased size
pulpal sclerosis is associated with?
does not appear to have a pulp chamber or pulp canals
nonvital adn do not require treatment
what irritants to the pulp my stimulate the producation of secondary dentin which obliterates the pulp cavity
abnormal mechanical forces
calcifications that are found in the pulp chamber or pulp canals of teeth
appear as round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities, may conform the the shape of the pulp chamber or canal
pulp stones may vary in (3)
do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment
lesion located around the apex of a tooth
on radiographs, periapical lesions may appear
radiolucent or radiopaque
Periapical radiolucencies (3)
localized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth
may give rise to a periapical cyst or abcess
sequela of pulpitis
inflammation of the pulp
most common sequela of pulpitis
has a prolonged history of sensativity to hot and cold
treatment of periapical granuloma
removal of tooth with curettage of the apical region
another name for periapical cyst
lesion that develops over a prolonged period; cystic degeneration takes place within a periapical granuloma and results in?
the periapical cyst results from?
pulpal death and necrosis
Most common of ALL tooth related cysts?
what percentage of cysts in the oral region are periapical?
treatment of periapical cyst?
extraction of the tooth and curettage of the apical region
localized collection of pus in the periapical region of a tooth that results from pulpal death
has features of an acute pus-producing process and inflammation
may result from an acute inflammation of teh pulp or an area of chronic infection
Acute periapical abcess
features of a long-standing, low-grade puss-producing process
chronic periapical abcess
acute periapical abcess is painful; pain may be (3)
the tooth with an acute periapical abcess is sensative to (3)
may be seen at the apical region of a tooth at the sight of drainage
treatment of the periapical abcess incluedes
endodontic therapy or extraction
Is radiographic change always evident with acute periapical abcess?
results from a bacterial infection within the walls of the periodontal tissues that typically results from a preexisting periodontal condition
the most common symptom of periodontal abcess is?
Therapy for a periodontal abcess includes
deep scaling and dbridement of the periodontal tissues
prognosis for the tooths periodontal health depends on (2)
amount fo bone loss
tooth with an infection in the pulp
tooth with purulent inflammation within the periodontal tissues
Periapical radiopacities (3)
periapical radiopacities can be diagonosed based on (3)
well-defined radiopacity that is seen below the apex of a nonvital tooth with a history of long-standing pulpitis
chapter 34 radiography
interpretation of trauma and pulpal and periapical lesions