CH6: Learning VOCAB

  1. mere exposure effect
    a learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
  2. classical conditioning
    a form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus
  3. neutral stimulus
    any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning; brought into a conditioning experiment, researchers call it conditioned stimulus
  4. unconditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, stimulus that elicits and unconditioned response
  5. unconditioned response
    in classical conditioning, response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
  6. acquisition
    initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
  7. conditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response
  8. conditioned response
    in classical conditioning, a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
  9. extinction (in classical conditioning)
    weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
  10. spontaneous recovery
    reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay
  11. stimulus generalization
    extension of a learned response to stimulu that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
  12. stimulus discrimination
    change in responses to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar
  13. taste-aversion learning
    a biological tendency in which an organism learns, after a single experience, to avoid a food with a certain taste, if eating it is followed by illness
  14. law of effect
    the idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or "stamped" into the organism
  15. reinforcer
    a condition (involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response
  16. positive reinforcement
    a stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again
  17. negative reinforcement
    the removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior (punishment)
  18. operant chamber
    box like apparatus that can be programmed to deliever reinforcers and punishers contingent on an animal's behavior; "skinner box"
  19. continuous reinforcement
    type of reinforcement schedule by which all correct responses are reinforced
  20. shaping
    an operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response
  21. intermittent reinforcement (partial reinforcement)
    type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
  22. extinction (inoperant conditioning)
    process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement
  23. schedule of reinforcement
    programs specifying the frequence & timing of reinforcements
  24. fixed ratio schedules
    programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, unvarrying number of responses
  25. variable ratio schedules
    reinforcement programs by which the number of responses required for a reinforcement varies from trial to trial
  26. fixed interval schedules
    programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, fixed time period
  27. variable interval schedules
    programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies from trial to trial
  28. primary reinforcers
    reinforcers that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism
  29. secondary reinforcers
    stimulu that acquire their reinforcing power by a learned association with primary reinforcers
  30. token economy
    • therapeutic method by which individuals are rewarded with tokens
    • act as secondary reinforcers
    • can be redeemed for a variety or rewards & privileges
    • based on operant conditioning
  31. premack principle
    • David Premack
    • a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
  32. punishment
    an aversive stimulus which, occuring after a response, diminished the strength of that response
  33. positive punishment
    application of an aversive stimulus after a response
  34. omission training (negative punishment)
    removal of an appetitive stimulus after a response, leading to decrease in behavior
  35. insight learning
    form of cognitive learning where problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions
  36. cognitive map
    mental representation of physical space
  37. obervational learning
    form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others' behavior and the consequences of their behavior
  38. long-term potentiation
    biological process, involving physical changed that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cells, believed to be the neural basis of learning
  39. trace conditioning
    NS presented first, removed, then the UCS is presented
  40. backward conditioning
    UCS presented first and NS follows
  41. simultaneous conditioning
    NS and UCS paired together at the same time
  42. higher-order conditioning
    classical conditioning in which a well-learned CS is paired with an NS to produce a CR to the NS
  43. contiguity theory
    that classical conditioning is based on the association in time of the CS prior to the UCS
  44. contingency theory
    says that the key to classical conditioning is how well the CS predicts the appearance of the UCS
  45. chaining
    established a specific sequence of behaviors by initially positively reinforcing each behavior in a desired sequence, then later rewarding only the completed sequence
  46. latent learning
    learning in the absence of rewards
Card Set
CH6: Learning VOCAB