It is the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills and cultural norms and values.
What is Schooling:
It Is formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers.
What year were the mandatory education laws requiring children to attend school.
1918, and until 16 or 8th grade.
Thomas Jefferson- new nation must have literate people in order for the new nations.......
democratic foundation to work.
Education: Is the major social institution for transmitting knowledge and skills, as well as teaching cultural norms and values.
-in preindustrial societies, education occurs informally within the family.
-industrial societies develop formal systems of schooling to educate their children.
The structural-Functional approach :
Highlights major functions of schooling, including socialization, cultural innovation, social integration, and the placement of people in the social hierarchy.
-latent functions of schooling include providing child care and building social networks.
The symbolic-interaction approach:
helps us understand that stereotypes can have important consequences for how people act. If students think they are academically superior, they are likely to preform better; students who think they are inferior are likely to preform less well.
links schooling to the hierarchy involving class, race, and gender.
-formal education serves as a means of generating comformity to produce obedient adult workers.
-standardized achievement tests have been criticized as culturally biased tools that may lead to labeling less privileged students as personally deficient.
-broke ass people go to public school, well-to-dos go to private schools.
assigning students to different types of educational programs.
a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living.
Schooling people with disabilities:
-children with mental or physical disabilities have historically been schooled in special classes.
-Mainstreaming affords them broader opportunities and exposes all children to a more diverse student population.
Problems in the schools:
-Violence permeates many schools, especially in poor neighborhoods.
-The bureaucratic character of schools fosters high dropout rates and student passivity.
-Declining academic standards are reflected in today's lower average scores on achievement tests, the functional illiteracy of a significant proportion of high school graduates, and grade inflation.
The School choice movement seeks to make schools more accountable to the public. Innovative options include:
-schooling for profit
Adults represent a growing proportion of students in the united states.
-Original pioneers of home schooling did not believe in public schools for strong religous values.
-Home schooling advocates today point to the poor performance of public schools.
The Teacher Shortage:
-More than 300,000 teaching vacancies exist in the united states each year due to low salaries, frustration, retirements, and rising enrollment and class size.
-To address this shortage, many schools districts are recruiting teachers from abroad.
Is a social issue because personal well-being depends on a society's level of technology and its distribution of resources. A society's culture shapes definitions of health.
the social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
Health varies over time:
With industrialization, health improved dramatically -in western europe and northern america in the nineteenth century.
-a century ago, infectious diseases were leading killers; today, most people in the U.S. die in old age of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, or stroke.
Health varies around the world:
-Poor nations suffer from inadequate sanitation, hunger, and other problems linked to poverty.
-life expectancy in low-income nations is about twenty-five years less than in the U.S; in the poorest nations, half the children do not survive to adulthood.
-More than three-fourths of U.S. children born today will live to at least age sixty-five.
-throughout the life course, women have better health than men, and people of high social position enjoy better health than the poor.
Current Health issues in the U.S. include;
-cigarette smoking, which is the greatest preventable cause of death
-eating disorders and obesity
-the increase in sexually transmitted diseases
-ethical dilemmas associated with advancing medical technology and the right to die.
The medical establishment:
-Health care was a family concern but with industrialization became the responsibility of trained specialists.
-The model of scientific medicine is the foundation of the U.S. medical establishment.
Paying for medical care; a global survey:
-socialist societies define medical care as a right; governments offer basic care equally to everyone.
-Capitalist societies view medical care as a commodity to be purchased, although most capitalist governments help pay for medical care through socialized medicine or national health insurance.
Paying for medical care: The United States:
U.S, with a direct-free system, is the only high-income nation with no comprehensive medical care program.
47 million U.S citizens do not have
Structural- functional approach:
Considers illness dysfunctional because it reduces people's abilities to preform their roles.
- the sick roll excuses the ill person from routine social responsibilities.
-The physician's role is to use specialized knowledge to take charge of the patient's recovery.
Investigates how health and medical care are socially constructed by people in everyday interaction:
-Our response to illness is not always based on medical facts.
-How people define a medical situation may affect how they feel.
The social- conflict and Feminist Approaches:
Focus on the unequal distribution of health and medical care. The criticize the U.S. medical establishment for
-its over-reliance on drugs and surgery.
-the dominance of the profit motive.
-overemphasis on the biological rather than the social causes of illness.
the study of how health and diseases are distributed throughout a society's population.
an intense form of dieting or other unhealthy method of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin
assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease; also know as mercy killing
an approach to health care that emphasizes the prevention of illness and takes into account a person's entire physical and social environment.
a medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians.
a medical care system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals.
Health maintenance organization (HMO):
an organization that provides comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee.
Patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill.