1. Ionic bonds
    • An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons

    • It now has a net electric charge

    • Cations- net positive charge

    • Anions- net negative charge

    • Ionic bond occurs when a cation binds to an anion

  2. Chemical Reactions
    • Occurs when one or more substances are changed into other substances

    • Reactants products

    • Share many properties

    • All require a source of energy

    • Reactions in living organisms often require a catalyst (enzymes)

    • Tend to proceed in a particular direction but will eventually reach equilibrium

    • Occur in liquid environment - water

  3. Hydrolysis and Dehydration
    • Hydrolysis reaction uses water to break apart covalent bonds

    • Also called catabolism

    • R1-R2 -> R1-H + R-2-OH

    • Dehydration reaction loses water to form bonds

    • Also called anabolsim

    • R1-H + R2-OH -> R1-R2

  4. Types of Reactions
    • Our body builds molecules and break molecules

    • Basis of cellular metabolism

    • Energy is released when a bond breaks (catabolism reaction)

    • Energy is required to form a bond (anabolism reaction)

  5. Properties of water
    • A solution is made up of the

    • Solvent- liquid

    • Solutes- substances dissolved in solvent

    • Aqueous solution- water is the solvent

    • Ions and molecules that contain polar covalent bonds will dissolve in water

Card Set
Cell Biology 2