L&P Quiz 1

  1. Parole/Performance
    the concrete act of speaking
  2. Langue
    language system shared by a community of speakers-same pronounciation/grammar/vocab/context
  3. Language/Dialect
    If 2 or more varieties are mutually unintelligible, then they are different languages
  4. Dialect
    subdivision of languages and are mutually intelligible. regionally/socially distinctive variety of a language.
  5. Idiolect
    linguistic system that underlies a person's use of language in a given time or place, specific to that person.
  6. Facts of All Languages
    • a.language is an integral part of human existence
    • b.languages are equally complex/capable of expressing ideas
    • c.languages capable of expanding
    • d.languages change over time
    • e. relationship b/n sound and meaning is arbitrary
    • f.grammars contain rules of a similar kind
    • g. all have vowels, consonants, prosodies
    • h. nouns and verbs
    • i. semantic properties: male/female, mother/father
    • j.syntactic properties: negating, questions, tenses
    • k.infinite set of sentences
    • l.any normal child can learn any language he/she is exposed to
  7. Arbitrariness
    No connection between form and meaning in majority of words.
  8. Duality
    property of having two levels of structure: units of primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level
  9. Productivity
    ability to construct/interpret new sentences
  10. Discreteness
    occurrence of one sound may reduce the possibility of the occurrence of the other
  11. Learnability
    Human language can be learned. Children can acquire it with no external instruction.
  12. Semantics
    Study of the meaning of language
  13. Philosophical Semantics
    examines relations between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer.
  14. Meaning
    refers to what language is about, the concepts that words and linguistic patterns refer to.
  15. Information Content
    communicate or reveal information about the world around us (relationships between objects situated in the world)
  16. Dictionary Definition
    more to the meaning of the word than it's dictionary definition
  17. Mental representations or mental images
    meaning of expression is not just mental image, since mental images vary from person to person more than meaning does
  18. Meaning and reference
    thing a word refers to. meaning involves a relation between language and the world
  19. Meaning, truth conditions, and truth value
    knowing the meaning of a sentence involves knowing conditions under which it would be true so explaining the meaning of a sentence can be done by explaining its truth conditions.
  20. Meaning and Language Use
    knowing the meaning of an utterance involves knowing how to use it, so conditions on language use also form an important aspect of meaning.
  21. Sense
    refers to the literal meaning of an expression independent of situational context
  22. Semantic Extension
    extending the meaning of the word (xerox as a noun and verb)
  23. Pragmatics
    study of language from the point of view of the users: what choices speakers make
  24. Quantity
    don't say too much-get to the point
  25. Quality
    tell the truth, don't say things without evidence
  26. Relevance
    don't say irrelevant things, don't get off topic
  27. Manner
    avoid obscurity
  28. Conversational Implicature
    inferences generated from an utterance, inferences tend to be beyond the semantic content of the sentence
  29. Flouting a Maxim
    interactional participants not cooperating with other discourse participants
  30. Locutionary
    just the act of saying something
  31. Illocutionary
    doing something by saying it-"you're fired"/ "you're under arrest"
  32. Felicity Conditions
    conditions that must be obtained for the valid performance of an illocutionary act. must be qualified to say it.
  33. Presupposition
    implicit asuumptions about the world required making an utterance appropriate/meaningful
  34. Implication
    presuppositions may be described in terms of implication, implying information that was not said
  35. Direct Illocutionary Act
    • synctatic form matches the illocutionary force
    • shut the door.
Card Set
L&P Quiz 1