________ organisms that us CO2 as their carbon source by converting C02 to __________ matter.
_________ are nutrionally independant living things
______ get their energy source from sunlight.
_______ have their energy sourches from inorganic compounds.
(the examples recycle inorganic nutrients)
_________ are organisms whos energy and carbon sources are organic compunds (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids) therefore are dependent upon other life forms for survival.
___________ is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell.
Catabolism- are chemical reactions that break down
complex organic compounds into simpler ones. This reaction releases energy that can drive ________ reaction.
-__________ are chemical reactions that break downcomplex organic compounds into simpler ones. This reaction releases energy that can drive anabolic reaction.
Examples of _____________ reactions:
____________ → Pyruvic acid + ATP
_____ _____→ TCA cycle→ ATP + CO2+ H20
Fermentation → ATP + other byproducts.
3 Pyruvic acid
Anabolism: These reactions require ________ to take place. Here simple substances combine to form complex molecules.
Example of anabolism reactions
amino acid → ___________
simple sugars → ____________
___________ __________ (Ea) which is the amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
Enzymes ________ the activation energy, and permit the reaction to proceed at a _____ rate at room temperature.
By lowering the activation energy barrier, enzymes allow chemicals to undergo _____________.
Enzymes are biological ________ (proteins) required for cellular reactions. Without enzymes reactions can’t occur fast enough to maintain life processes. Each cell has thousands of enzymes
Respiration- Can be done either ________ or __________
aerobically or anerobically
Aerobic –requires oxygen and occurs in the _________ and ___________.
Aerobic respiration generates a net of __ (__ total) ATP molecules
Aerobic in bacteria occurs in the _________. Electrons are ultimately passed to molecular oxygen (O2), the terminal electron acceptor, producing ________.
Anaerobic - is common in _______ and protista and oxygen is not required. (uses electron transport chain)
Anaerobic respiration takes place in the ________ and generates a net of ___ ATP molecules. (number varies however , the ATP yield of anaerobic respiration is less then that of aerobic respiration but more then that of fermentation.)
_______ respiration Uses a molecule other then O2 as a terminal electron acceptor. (such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfate)
__________ (does not use electron transport chain) (Book)- metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic compounds completely, using an organic intermediate such as pyruvate or derivative as a terminal electron acceptor.
Fermentation uses an electron transport chain T/F?
two types of fermentation _______ ________ and _______________
Assuming a sufficient concentration of substrate is available, increasing enzyme concentration will _______ the enzyme reaction rate.
At a constant enzyme concentration and at lower concentrations of substrates, the substrate concentration is the limiting factor. As the substrate concentration increases, the enzme reaction rate ________.
However, at very high substrate concentrations, the enzymes become saturated with substrate and a higher concentration of substrate does ________the reaction rate.