1. What are the three stages of pregnancy?
    • Pre-embryo
    • Embryo
    • Fetal
  2. What three things occur in the pre-embryo stage?
    • Gametogenesis
    • Fertilization
    • Cleavage
  3. What two things occur during the embryo stage?
    • Gastrulation
    • Organogenesis
  4. What is the main thing that occurs during the fetal stage?
  5. This occurs when a sperm�s chromosomes combine with those of a secondary oocyte to form a fertilized egg (zygote).
  6. The sperm must penetrate what two layers to complete fertilization?
    • Zona pellucida
    • Corona radiate
  7. What is the activation of sperm inside a woman called?
    Capacitation (can live up to 6 days)
  8. Within 12 hours, the chromosomes mix and form this in the fallopian tube.
    A zygote
  9. How long is an oocyte is viable?
    12 to 24 hours
  10. How long is sperm viable after ejaculation?
    24 to 48 hours
  11. Of the approximately 300 million sperm that are ejaculated, about how many actually reach the egg in the oviduct?
  12. Name two things that can prevent sperm from making it to the egg, other than defective sperm.
    • Acidic vaginal environment
    • Destroyed by phagocytes
  13. Upon entry of sperm, this surges from the ER and causes a cortical reaction that prevents polyspermy.
  14. Cortical granules release ZIPs (enzymes) that destroy what?
    Sperm receptors
  15. T or F? The human zygote undergoes a series of cleavages to produce an embryo.
  16. The initial division of the zygote produces these.
  17. This is the solid ball of blastomeres that can be seen 3 days after fertilization.
  18. Four days after fertilization, the morula hollows out and forms this.
    Early blastocyst
  19. During the implantation of the blastocyst, it consists of these cells and an inner cell mass.
  20. After cleavage, the blastocyst is now known as this.
  21. A cross section of a gastrula will show what three layers?
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
  22. The embryonic disc is formed during what stage?
  23. The digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems arise from what germ layer of the embryonic disc?
  24. The nervous system, sense organs, skin, nails, and hair arise from this germ layer.
  25. The bone, muscle, blood, reproductive and connective systems arise from what germ layer?
  26. What are the four extra embryonic membranes?
    • Amnion
    • Yolk sac
    • Allantois
    • Chorion
  27. What is a transparent sac filled with amniotic fluid?
  28. What are three functions of the amniotic fluid and sac?
    • Provides a protected environment for embryo
    • Helps homeostasis
    • Allows freedom of movement preventing parts from fusing
  29. Where does amniotic fluid come from?
    Maternal blood
  30. This hangs from the ventral surface of the embryo and is the source of the earliest blood cells and blood vessels. It also forms part of the digestive tube.
    Yolk sac
  31. This helps form the placenta by enclosing the embryonic body and all other membranes.
  32. What small out-pocketing at the caudal end of the yolk sac is the structural base for the umbilical cord and becomes part of the urinary bladder?
  33. Gastrulation sets the stage for this, which is the formation of body organs and systems.
  34. All organ systems are recognizable and the embryonic period comes to an end during which week?
  35. What is the first major event of organogenesis, it gives rise to the brain and spinal cord?
  36. Where is the ectoderm that forms the neural plate located?
    Over the notochord
  37. The neural plate folds inward as this.
    Neural groove with neural folds
  38. Neural folds fuse into a neural tube, the anterior end forming the brain and the remaining, the spinal cord by what day of pregnancy.
  39. These cells give rise to cranial, spinal, sympathetic ganglia, and adrenal medulla.
    Neural crest cells
  40. What is parturition?
    Childbirth, labor
  41. The hormone oxytocin uses what type of feedback loop to induce labor?
  42. What are the three stages of labor?
    • 1. Dilation
    • 2. Expulsion
    • 3. Delivery of placenta
  43. What is the four-week period immediately after birth?
    Neonatal period
  44. Physical status is assessed 1 to 5 minutes after birth by this 1 to 10 scoring system.
    Apgar score
  45. The Apgar scores these 5 areas with a score of 8 to 10 being healthy.
    • Heart rate
    • Respiration
    • Color
    • Muscle tone
    • Reflexes
  46. This is the production of milk by the mammary glands.
  47. T or F? During early pregnancy, placental estrogens, progesterone, and lactogen stimulate the hypothalamus to release prolactin releasing factors.
    False. This occurs toward the end of pregnancy.
  48. What gland releases prolactin?
    Anterior pituitary
  49. This yellowish secretion rich in vitamin A, protein, minerals, and IgA is released during the first 2 to 3 days after childbirth.
  50. Suckling initiates what type of feedback mechanism?
  51. What hormone causes the letdown hormone?
  52. Breast milk is a natural laxative that helps eliminate meconium, preventing what?
  53. T or F? Breast milk encourages bacterial colonization of the large intestine.
  54. T or F? Beneficial chemicals in breast milk include IgA, complement, lysozyme, interferon, and lactoperoxidase.
  55. T or F? The fats, iron, and amino acids are more easily absorbed or metabolized in cow�s milk than in breast milk.
  56. Interleukins and prostaglandins prevent what?
    Overzealous inflammatory responses
  57. What is the single most important cause of reproductive disorders?
    STIs and STDs
  58. This is a bacterial infection of mucosae of reproductive and urinary tracts.
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