1. These are primary sex organs that include the male testes and the female ovaries.
  2. Gonads produce these sex cells.
  3. Gonads secrete these two steroid sex hormones in females.
    • Estrogens
    • Progesterone
  4. This steroid sex hormone is secreted in males.
  5. What are three accessory reproductive organs?
    • Ducts
    • Glands
    • External genitalia
  6. What part of the male reproductive system is within the scrotum and produces sperm?
  7. Sperm is delivered to the exterior through a system of what four ducts?
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus deferens
    • Ejaculatory duct
    • Urethra
  8. What are the three accessory sex glands in males?
    • Seminal vesicles
    • Prostate
    • Bulbourethral glands
  9. What is the function of male accessory sex glands?
    To empty secretions into ducts during ejaculation.
  10. What is the temp in the scrotum, compared to body temp?
    4C lower
  11. T or F? the scrotum distends or pulls close to the body to maintain constant temp.
  12. What layer of smooth muscle in the superficial fascia wrinkles the scrotal skin?
    Dartos muscle
  13. These are bands of skeletal muscle that arise from the internal oblique muscles of the trunk and elevate the testes.
    Cremaster muscles
  14. Coiled and lined by smooth muscle, these are the sperm factories.
    Seminiferous tubules
  15. Located in the testes, these interstitial cells produce androgens.
    Leydig cells
  16. After leaving the �sperm factories�, the sperm is transported where to mature and for storage?
  17. What is the tube that carries sperm from the epididymis?
    Vas deferens
  18. Internally, the penis contains the spongy urethra and how many long cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue?
  19. The corpora (bodies of erectile tissue) are each covered by a sheath of what?
    Dense fibrous connective tissue
  20. Erectile tissue is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle. The vascular spaces that riddle the tissue are called what?
    Corpora cavernosa
  21. The blood supply to the penis consists of the long testicular arteries that branch off of what artery superior to the pelvis?
    Abdominal aorta
  22. What network absorbs heat from arterial blood before it enters the testes? Testicular veins arise from this network.
    Pampiniform plexus
  23. Which nervous system affects the male reproductive organ?
    Autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
  24. These nerve fibers are enclosed (with blood vessels and lymphatics) in the spermatic cord, which passes through the inguinal canal. They transmit pain impulses to the brain.
    Associated sensory nerves
  25. What are the 3 male accessory glands?
    • Seminal vesicles or glands
    • Prostate
    • Bulbourethral (Cowper�s) glands
  26. What accessory gland secretes yellowish, viscous, alkaline fluid that contains fructose sugar, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme, prostaglandins, and substances that enhance sperm motility?
    Seminal vesicle (60 percent of semen volume)
  27. What are the pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate gland that produce the thick, clear mucus that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra?
    Bulbourethral (Cowper�s) glands
  28. This gland encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder and produces a milky, slightly acidic fluid that contains citrate (nutrient source), several enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
    Prostate (one third volume of semen)
  29. The male urethra conveys both urine and semen and is divided into these three regions (depending on location).
    • Prostatic urethra
    • Membranous urethra
    • Spongy (penile) urethra
  30. Semen is a mixture of sperm and what?
    Accessory gland secretions
  31. T or F? Semen contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitates sperm movement.
  32. What is responsible for decreasing viscosity of mucus in the cervix and reverse peristalsis in the uterus?
  33. Clotting factors coagulate semen which is later liquefied by this.
  34. What is the average volume of ejaculation?
    2to 5 mL
  35. How many sperm can be found in a mL of semen?
    20 to 150 million
  36. What is the sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testes is known as what process?
  37. Most body cells contain two sets of chromosomes (one maternal and one paternal) and 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Are these haploid or diploid?
    Diploid (2n)
  38. These are haploid and contain 23 chromosomes.
  39. T or F? Gamete formation involves meiosis.
  40. This occurs in the gonads and is when the number of chromosomes is halved.
    Nuclear division
  41. What are the 2 consecutive cell divisions that follow one round of DNA replication?
    Meiosis I and II
  42. How many daughter cells are produced during meiosis?
  43. What division of meiosis is reductive division? The mitosis process?
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
  44. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 are autosomal and the last are what?
    X, Y sex chromosomes
  45. What is the term for a different form of the same gene?
  46. What type of cells give rise to sperm?
    Spermatic cells
  47. What are the steps from spermatogonia to sperm?
    • (Mitosis) spermatogonia form spermatocytes
    • (Meiosis) spermatocytes form spermatids
    • (Spermiogenesis) spermatids become sperm
  48. What are the 3 regions of sperm?
    • Head
    • Midpiece
    • Tail
  49. What is the metabolic region of sperm that contains coils of mitochondria?
  50. What is the loco-motor region with flagellum?
  51. What is the genetic region that holds the nucleus and acrosome containing hydrolytic enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate the egg?
  52. What percentage of sperm is defective?
  53. The hypothalamus releases this, causing the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  54. What hormone makes the spermatogenic cells receptive to testosterone?
  55. What hormone stimulates interstitial cells to release testosterone?
  56. What is the final trigger for spermatogenesis?
  57. Feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and pituitary results from these two things.
    • Rising levels of testosterone
    • Inhibin (released when sperm count is high)
  58. Testosterone is synthesized from what via estrogen?
  59. T of F? Testosterone prompts spermatogenesis, has multiple anabolic effects throughout the body, and is the basis of the male sex drive.
  60. Testosterone is responsible for what five secondary characteristics?
    • Pubic, axillary, and facial hair
    • Enhanced growth of chest and deepening of voice
    • Skin thickens and becomes oily
    • Bones grow and increase in density
    • Skeletal muscles increase in size and mass
  61. What are the female gonads that produce female gametes (ova) and secrete female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)?
  62. What are three accessory ducts of the female reproductive system?
    • Uterine tubes
    • Uterus
    • Vagina
  63. What ligament anchors the ovary medially to the uterus?
    Ovarian ligament
  64. What ligament anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall?
    Suspensory ligament
  65. What suspends the ovaries?
  66. This ligament supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium.
    Broad ligament
  67. T or F? The ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery supply blood flow to the ovaries.
  68. The ovaries are surrounded by this fibrous layer.
    Tunica albuginea
  69. What is the name of the immature egg contained in the follicle?
  70. What is the fluid filled follicle that bulges from the ovary surface?
    Vesicular (Graafian) follicle
  71. What is the term for the ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle?
  72. This develops from a ruptured follicle after ovulation.
    Corpus luteum
  73. The oocyte is carried along this tube by peristalsis and ciliary action.
    Uterine (fallopian) tubes or oviducts
  74. What is the role of the nonciliated cells in the oviducts?
    Nourish the oocyte and sperm
  75. What are the two regions of the uterus?
    • Fundus (rounded superior region)
    • Isthmus (narrowed inferior region)
  76. What are the three layers of the uterus?
    • Perimetrium (serous layer, visceral peritoneum)
    • Myometrium (interlacing layers of smooth muscle)
    • Endometrium (mucosal lining, shed during menstruation)
  77. What is the birth canal and organ of copulation?
  78. What are the three layers of the vaginal wall?
    • Fibroelastic adventitia
    • Smooth muscle muscularis
    • Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae
  79. Near the vaginal orifice, the mucosa forms an incomplete partition called what?
  80. What is the upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix?
    Vaginal fornix
  81. Name the six external female genitalia.
    • Mons pubis
    • Labia majora
    • Labia minora
    • Greater vestibular glands
    • Clitoris
    • Perineum
  82. Which of the external female genitalia release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication and is homologous to the bulbourethral glands?
    Great vestibular glands
  83. Mammary glands consist of 15 to 25 lobes and are a modified type of what kind of gland?
    Sweat gland
  84. What is the pigmented skin around the nipple?
  85. T of F? Suspensory ligaments attach the breast to underlying muscle.
  86. These are within the lobes and contain glandular alveoli that produce milk.
  87. T or F? Milk travels through the lactiferous sinuses to through the lactiferous ducts to the outside of the nipple.
    False. Ducts then sinuses.
  88. What is the production of female gametes called?
  89. When does oogenesis begin?
    Fetal period
  90. T or F? Primary oocytes begin meiosis but stall in prophase I.
  91. The monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg.
    Ovarian cycle
  92. What are the two consecutive phases of the ovarian cycle?
    • Follicular phase
    • Luteal phase (after ovulation)
  93. During which phase is there a period of corpus luteum activity?
    Luteal phase
  94. Changes that occur in the uterus are dependent on interactions between these three things.
    • Uterus
    • Brain
    • Endometrium
  95. T or F? The menstrual cycle is self-regulating through feedback loops.
  96. T or F? Estrogen promotes oogenesis and follicle growth in the ovary, exert anabolic effects, and support the rapid but short lived growth spurt at puberty.
  97. Estrogen induces what three secondary sex characteristics?
    • Growth of breasts
    • Deposits of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts)
    • Widening and lightening of the pelvis
  98. What are two metabolic effects of estrogen?
    • Maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels
    • Facilitates calcium uptake
  99. What hormone works with estrogen to establish and regulate the uterine cycle?
  100. What are two effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy?
    • Inhibit uterine motility
    • Helps prepare breasts for lactation
  101. This occurs when menses have ceased for an entire year.
  102. Declining estrogen levels during menopause can cause what five signs of menopause?
    • Atrophy of reproductive organs and breasts
    • Irritability or depression
    • Hot flashes
    • Gradual thinning of skin and bone loss
    • Increased total blood cholesterol and falling HDL
  103. Breast cancer usually arises from what cells?
    Epithelial cells of small ducts
  104. What are three risk factors associated with breast cancer?
    • Early onset menstruation and late menopause
    • No pregnancy or first pregnancy late in life
    • Family history
  105. What percentage of breast cancer is due to hereditary defects including mutations to BRCA1 and BRCA2?
  106. What percentage of women with breast cancer has no known risk factors?
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