ch.12 MGMT

  1. Abraham Maslow hirearchy of needs theory, which proposes that peopl are motivated by five level of needs:
    • physiological
    • safety
    • love
    • esteem
    • self actualiztion
  2. maslow suggested that needs are:
    never completely satisfied
  3. Maslows Physiological needs
    these are the most basic human phycial needs, in which one is concerned with having food,, clothing, shelter, and comfort and with self-preservation
  4. maslow's safety needs
    these needs are concerned with physical safety and emotional security, so that a personis concernd with avoiding violence and threats
  5. maslow's love needs
    once basic needs and security are taken care of,, people look for love, friendship, and affection
  6. maslows esteem needs
    after they meet their social needs, people focus on such matters as self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, and self-confidence
  7. maslows self-actualization needs
    the hghest level of need, self-actualizaion is self-fulfillment -- the eed to develop one's fullest potential, to become the best one is capable of being
  8. Clayto Alderfer's ERG theory assumes:
    that three basic needs influence behair -- existence, relatedness, and growth

  9. ERG's E -- Existence needs
    existence needs are the desire for physiological and material well-being
  10. ERG's R -- relatedness needs
    relatedness needs are the desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us
  11. ERG's G -- Growth Needs
    groth needs are the desire to grow as a human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential
  12. frustration-regression component
    alderfer (erg) - higher level needs are frustrated, we will then seek mre intensely to fulfill our lower level needs
  13. David McClelland - acqured needs theory
    which states that three needs -- achievement, affiliation, and power -- are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace

    believes we are NOT born with our eeds, rather we learn them
  14. McClelland's acquired needs theory -- achievement
    "i need to excel at tasks"

    this is the desire to excel, to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, to achieve excellence in challenging tasks
  15. McClelland -- acquired needs theory -- affiliation
    "i need close relationships"

    the desire for friendly and warm relations with other people
  16. McClelland -- acquired needs theory -- power
    "i need to control others"

    the desire to be responsible for other people, to influence their behavior or to control them
  17. McClellands two forms of the need for power
    negative - need for personal power - dominate others, manipulating

    positive - characteristics of top managers and leaders -- the desire for institutional power, need to solve problems that further organizational goals
  18. Frederick Hezberg -- two-factor theory
    proposed that work satisfaction and disatisfaction arise from two different factors -- work satisfaction from motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from hygiene factors
  19. Herzbergs theory, the ______ factors are the lower-level needs
  20. Herzbergs theory, the _______ factors are the higher-level needs
  21. Process perspectives
    are concened with the thought proceses by which people decide how to act with 3 theories

    • equity theory
    • expectancy theory
    • goal-setting theory
  22. Equity Theory : how fairly do you think you're being treated i relation to others?
    focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they thik they are being treated compared to others

    developed by J. stacy adams
  23. Key elements in equity theory are:
    • inputs
    • outputs (rewards)
    • comparisons
  24. equity theory -- inputs

    "what do yout hink youre putting into the job"
    inputs that people perceive they give to an organization are their time, effort, training, experience, intelligence, creativeity, seniority, status, and so on
  25. equity theory -- outputs or rewards

    "what do you think youre getting out of the job"
    outputs are the rewards that peopl eceive from an organization: pay, benefits, praise, recognition, bonuses, promotion, status perquisites, and so on
  26. equity theory -- comparison

    "how do you think your ratio of inputs and rewards compares with those of others
    people either perceive there is equity -- they are sastisfied witht he ratio and so t hey dont change their behavior. Or they perceive there is inequity -- they feel resentful and act to ch ange their inequity
  27. Victor Vroom -- expectancy theory -- suggested that people are motivated by two things:
    • 1. how much they want something
    • 2. how likely they think they are to get it
  28. your motivation, according to expectancy theory involves relationship between your
    • effort
    • your performance
    • and the desireability of the outcomes
  29. Expectancy
    the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance

    effort-to-performance expectancy
  30. instrumentality
    is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcom desired

  31. valence
    the value, the importance a worker asignes to the possible outcome or reward
  32. Goal Setting theory
    suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable

    • edwin locke
    • gary latham
  33. three elements of goal-setting theory
    goals must be:

    • specific
    • challenging
    • achievable
  34. job design (2)
    • 1. the division of an organization's work among its employees and
    • 2. the application of motivational theories o jobs to increase satisfaction and performance
  35. 3 job design techniques
    job simplification - the process of reducing the number of taks a worker performs

    job enlargement - consists of increasing the nuber of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation

    job enrichment - consists of bu ilding into a job such motivatig factors as responsibilit, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement
  36. reinforcement theory
    which attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behvior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
  37. 4 types of reinforcement
    • positive
    • negative
    • extinction
    • punishment
  38. positive reinforcement -
    the use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior
  39. negative reinforcement
    the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior
  40. extinction
    the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desireable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future
  41. punishment
    the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior
Card Set
ch.12 MGMT
maslow, erg, theory, theories