age related hearing loss
Otitis media (def)
inflammation of the the middle ear due to fluid collection and resulting in conductive hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss (def)
hearing loss due to lesion of disease of the inner ear or auditory nerve (CN 8)
the perception of pain
process of converting a painful stimulus into an action potential that can be transmitted to the CNS
- action potential travels from injury to spinal cord
- -- from spinal cord to brain stem and thalamus
- -- from thalamus to cortex
interpretation of the sensory impulse of pain
physiologic or behavioral actions that modify intensity of the pain sensation
Excitatory modulators (6)
- substance P
- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
- calcitonin-gene-related peptide
- adenosine triphosphate
What do excitatory modulators do? What is another name for them?
- Also called neurotransmiters
- facilitate the transmission of the pain impulse across the synaptic cleft between the nociceptors and the dorsal horn neurons
Neural processing of pain: the ___ perceives pain, the ___ provides emotion/expression related to pain
- parietal lobe - perceives pain
- limbic system - emotion/expression related to pain
- level of painful stimulation required in order to perceive pain
- does NOT vary from person to person
- duration and/or intensity of pain that an individual can tolerate before seeking assistance
- varies person to person based on situation, gender, age, culture, etc.
Gate closers and examples
- A-alpha & A-beta (non-nociceptive large diameter fibers
- e.g.: touch, vibration, thermal stimulation
Acute pain (def)
- rapid onset from injury
- lasts less than 3 months
What M's of chronic pain differentiate it from acute pain?
- NO sympathetic symptoms with chronic pain
- chronic pain often has psychological manifestations (insomnia, depression, preoccupation with pain, looking for meaning in the pain)
Conductive Hearing loss (def)
alterations in the outer and middle ear that interfere with conduction of sound waves to the inner ear
Conductive Hearing loss (M's)
- impaired hearing signaled by:
- -- reduced attentiveness to environment
- -- sitting very close to tv or radio
- soft speeking voice
Otitis Media (M's)
- diminished hearing
- cloudy tympanic membrane w/ altered light reflection
- reddened tympanic membrane
- bulging tympanic membrane
- otalgia (ear pain) that subsides if eardrum ruptures
decreased accommodation for near vision due to thickening of lens
Macular degeneration (def)
degeneration of the macula resulting in loss of central vision
- also known as "pink eye"
- inflammation of the conjunctiva
Hyperacute Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
- * sight threatening *
- conjunctival redness and edema
- lid edema and tenderness
- enlarged preaurecular lymph nodes
Which type of bacterial conjunctivitis is "sight threatening"?
A Gonococcal eye infection = ___
Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
- yellow-green drainage (large amounts)
- eyelids sticky
Chronic Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
- foreign body sensation
- morning eyelash crusting
What manifestation separates Allergic conjunctivitis from all other types?
allergic starts out bilateral, all other are unilateral until spread
Viral conjunctivitis a/w Adenovirus (M's)
- hyperemia (dilated blood vessels)
- excessive tearing
- minimal exudate (gloppy stuff)
Viral conjunctivitis a/w herpes (M's)
- mucous discharge
- mild photophobia
Allergic conjunctivitis (M's)
inflammation of the cornea
- corneal scarring and ulceration resulting in permanently diminished vision
What are some viruses and bacteria that cause keratitis?
Gonococcal infection or Herpes simples virus can cause what eye disorder?
- one eye cannot focus with the other
- eyes are misaligned
- most commonly a control system problem
involuntary movement of the eyes (horizontal, vertical, rotary)
- an abnormal blind spot
- an area in the visual field in which vision is absent or very diminished
- loss of transparency of the lens
- can cause partial or total blindness
- burred vision
- vision for near and far decreased
- pupil dilation improves vision
- may be unilateral or bilateral
What eye disorder is a/w smoking, diabetes mellitus, and taking systemic corticosteroids?
a group of eye diseases that result in increased intraocular pressure because of decreased outflow of aqueous humor
What eye disorder can result in retinal ischemia and blindness?
What type of eye disorder is considered an emergency situation?
angle closed glaucoma
Which type of glaucoma is insidious?
Acute (angle closed) glaucoma (M's)
- severe eye pain
- dilation of pupil
- nausea and vomiting
Chronic (open angle) glaucoma (M's)
- gradual loss of peripheral vision -> tunnel vision
- dull eye pain (persistent)
- loss of color vision
Ageusia or Hypoguesia (def)
loss or impaired sense of taste
Damage to cn 9 results in what taste disturbance?
loss of sensitivity to bitter
Damage to cn 7 results in what taste disturbance?
loss of sensitivity to sweet, sour, and salt
- perversion of taste
- everything tastes unpleasant
What taste disturbance is common with people receiving chemotherapy?