1. Sarcasm
    • greek meaning "to tear flesh"
    • involves bitter, caustic language that is meant too hurt or ridicule someone or something
    • may us irony as a device
    • not all ironic statements are sarcastic
    • when well done can be witty and insightful
    • when poorly done its cruel
  2. satire
    • targets human views and follies or institution and conventions, for reform or ridicule
    • best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing
    • can be recognized by irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm
    • good satire-humerous, though provoking and insightful about the human condition
  3. Smilie
    • explicit comparison
    • "like" or "as" or "if"
    • "O my love is like a red rose. Thats newly sprung in June. O my love is like a melody, thats sweetly played in tune"
  4. Style
    • consideration of style has two purposes:
    • 1) evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language
    • *some authors styles are so idiosyncratic that we can quickly recognize works by the same author
    • *jonathan swift to george orwell, william faulkner to ernest hemingway
    • *can be called flowery explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace

    2) classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors

    • one can see how an authors style reflects an helps define a historical period
    • Renaissance, Victorian period
    • literary movement, romantic, transcendental, realist
  5. Subject Compliment
    • the word or clause that follows a linking verb
    • complements, or completes the subject of the sentence by either (1) renaming it (2) describing it
    • former is called a predicate nominative, latter a predicate adjective
  6. Subordinate Clause
    • contains both a subject and a verb
    • cant stand alone; does not express a complete thought
    • also called a dependent clause
    • depends on a main clause (independent clause) to complete its meaning
    • "although", "because", "unless", "if" "since"
  7. syllogism
    • from greek for "reckoning together"
    • deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises-"major"&"minor", lead to a sound
    • conclusion
    • major: all men are mortal
    • minor: socrates is a man
    • conclusion: therefore, socrates is mortal
    • only valid if each of the two premises are valid
    • may also present the specific idea first and the general idea second
  8. Symbol/Symbolism
    • anything that represents or stands for something else
    • something concrete-such as an object, action, character, or scene-that represents something more abstract
  9. Natural Symbols
    • objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them
    • (dawn symbolizing hope, rose-love, tree-knowledge)
  10. Conventional Symbols
    • have been invested with meaning by a group
    • cross, star of david
    • national: flag, eagle
    • group: skull and cross bones for pirates
    • the scales of justice for lawyers
  11. Literary Symbols
    • found in a variety of works and are generally recognized
    • whale in moby dick
    • the jungle in heart of darkness
  12. Syntax
    • way author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences
    • similar to diction; differentiate by thinking of syntax as referring to groups of words, while diction refers to individual words
    • length/shortness of sentences, unusual sentence construction, sentence patterns used
    • exclamations, questions, rhetorical questions
    • sentences may also be classified as periodic or loose, simple, compound, or complex
  13. Theme
    • central idea or message of a work
    • insight it offers into life
    • unstated in fictional works
    • in nonfiction directly states, especially in expository or argumentative writing
    • can be states as "universal truth" a general statement about the human condition, about society, or about man's relation to the natural world
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