After what event did the Middle Ages start? Where and when did they happen?
- The fall of Rome
- At different times in different places
What groups influenced the Middle Ages?
- Germanic invaders (Goths from Italy[Bisigoths and Ostrogoths], Lombards, Franks from france, Angles and Saxons from England, and Vandals from North Africa.)
Who was the first Merovingian king? For what is he famous?
- He converted to Christianity
What did Clovis' lazy successors do? Who was the first one?
- They hired mayors to do the work for them
- Charles Martel (the hammer)
For what was Charles Martel famous?
He defended against the Muslims in 732 at the Battle of Tours (Poitiers). He popularized the stirrup which helped them fight on horses.
Who was Charles Martel's son? What did he do?
- Pepin the Short
- He hated being just mayor, so he went to the pope who let him be king. This was the start of the Carolingian Dynasty. He also gave the pope land (papal land)
Who was Pepin the Short's son? What did he do (in a nutshell)?
- Got land
- Worked with the church (made monasteries)
- Used Missi Dominici (messengers like CIA)
- Had nobles with their own military
- Organized the empire
- Constantly moved the court
- Had great advisors
Who was Alcuin of York? What did he do with Charlemagne?
- He was Charlemagne's best advisor.
- Built schools
- Dealt with people humanely (not all killing)
- Set a standard for today's lower case writing
Why did Charlemagne dislike being crowned by the pope?
It meant that he was less powerful than the pope.
When the Saracens and Magyars attacked Charlemagnes' grandchildrens' empire, who defeated them? Also, what era did these attacks cause?
- Otto the Great
- People wanted protection on their own, so they started reverting to feudalism
What empire did Otto the Great create?
The Holy Roman Empire
What were the two original types of clergy? Describe them.
- Secular: Lived/worked among the people
- Regular: Known as monks who lived according to the rule. St. Benedict made the Benedicting rule for monasteries: Obedience, labor, poverty, chastity
What monastery did Benedict found? What purpose did it serve?
- Monte Cassino
- Stored documents/supplies, functioned as a church
What is the more recently created form of Clergy?
Friars who live with people, but follow the rule. One example is St. Francis.
Describe the hierarchy of the Feudal Europe.
- Tenants in chief are nobles and church officials
Who is the head of a Monastery?
Who are cardinals? How do they elect the pope?
- They are important people in the community (not necessarily Bishops)
- They lock themselves up and then decide
Who was Hildebrand? Tell his story.
He was a peasant who became Abbot of Cluny in France. He reformed it and became popular and admired. He went on to become Pope Gregory VII
What are excommunication and interdict?
- Excommunication: The pope banishes a political leader from being holy. Therefore, he will go to hell.
- Interdict: A political leader and all of his land is excommunicated. No religious ceremonies can be performed on it.