plant biology

  1. what exactly is a fruit?
    riped ovary
  2. what are the two major categories of dry fruit?
    dehiscent and indehiscent
  3. what is a dehiscent dry fruit?
    open to release their seeds along definite lines
  4. what is indehiscent dry fruit?
    doesn't open to release seeds must grow through pericarp
  5. What is grain?
    caryopsis: single seed is entirely fused with the pericarp
  6. what is achenes?
    the single seed is only attached to the pericarp at one point
  7. what is a nut?
    one seed at maturity with a hard sclerifed pericarp
  8. what is a samara?
    a winged achene
  9. what is a follicle?
    split along one side to release seeds from one carpel
  10. what is a legume?
    split along two sides to realse seeds
  11. what is a capsules?
    split along three or more sides or points
  12. what is a septicidal capsule?
    yucca agave. split occures along septum
  13. what is a loculicidal capsule?
    lily; split occurs in locule
  14. what is a poricidal capsule?
    poppy; pores occur at the top of the fruit(acts like a saltshaker)
  15. what is a fleshy fruit?
    at maturity the pericarp consists of sugary, starchy, or fatty parenchyma
  16. what is a simple fruit?
    develop from a flower with one pistil
  17. what is a compound fruit?
    collection of fruits that tend to hold as a single. may be fleshy or dry
  18. what is a berry?
    entire pericarp is fleshy may have one to many carpels and one to many seeds
  19. what is pepo?
    berry with a hard inseparable rind. Example:cucumber
  20. what is hesperidium?
    berry with leathery rind juice sacs develop in locules Citus family
  21. what is a drupe?
    a fleshy fruit with a papery or cartilaginous endocarp and a fleshy mesocarp example: apple or pear
  22. what is a aggregate fruit?
    separate carpels pistils of one flower that stay together. many follicles example; strawberrys, magnolia
  23. what is multiple fruit?
    pineapple, many inferior ovaries and the inflorescence axis are edible
  24. what is a cotyledons in seeds?
    seed leaves pull nutrition from endosperm from embryo
  25. what is a radicle?
    first seed
  26. what is a plumule?
    the first true leaves
  27. what is hilum?
    scar on the seed where the funiculus abscised, where the ovule was attached to the ovary wall
  28. what is the micropyle?
    pore located next to hilum, where water is taken up in some seeds
  29. what is a seed coat?
    protects the seed allow it to stay dormant for long periods of time
  30. what is the embryo of seeds?
    cotyledons, radicle, plumule
  31. what are the two types of seeds?
    albuminous seeds and exalbuminous seeds
  32. what is an albuminous seeds?
    contain endosperm at maturity ie;corn castor bean
  33. what is an exalbuminous seed?
    little or no endosperm at maturity. ie; legumes cacti, and orchids
  34. what is gemination?
    in order to germinate domancy must be broken
  35. what is scarification?
    nicking or breaking seed coat for imbibation to occur
  36. what is after-ripening?
    embryo needs further ripening after fruit has fallen
  37. what is stratification?
    cold temperature treatment is required for germination
  38. what is environmental regulation?
    seeds need specific envionmental conditions to germinate; example water, oxygen, and light or absence of light
  39. what are the four ways domancy may be broken?
    1.scarification 2. after-ripening 3. stratification 4. environmental regulation
Card Set
plant biology
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