Intro to Histopath Exam 7

  1. 3 primary morphological classifications of disease
    • 1. degenerative
    • 2. inflammatory
    • 3. neoplastic
  2. What are the 2 primary classes of inflammation and what are the main cells involved?
    • 1. acute (mostly neutraphils)
    • 2. chronic (lymphocytes, plama cells, macrophages)
  3. What are 2 primary classes of neoplasms and how do they differ?
    1. benign - no infiltration into other tissues; 2. malignant - infiltrates tissues (metastasized)
  4. What are 3 possible outcomes of environmental stress?
    • 1. adapation (reversible)
    • 2. reversible cell injury
    • 3. cell death (apoptosis or necrosis)
  5. Atrophy
    decrease in cell size in response to stress
  6. Hypertrophy
    increase in cell volume in response to stress; no change in cell numbers; growth inhibitors prevent mitosis
  7. Hyperplasia; types and examples?
    • increase in cell numbers my mitosis;
    • 1. regenerative (liver)
    • 2. endocrinal
    • 3. compensatory (kidney disease can cause parathyroid hyperplasia)
  8. Metaplasia; examples of?
    reversible transformation of one cell type to another

    GERD- transformation of SSE to glandular epithelium with goblet cells in response to acid reflux
  9. Dysplasia
    degranged cell growth with abnormal size and shape; can be cancerous
  10. Cachexia
    physically wasting atrophy; can be self-inflicted or disease process
  11. Overview of Cell Injury 3 Processes
    • 1. Increase in intracellular Ca2+ due to membrane damage
    • 2. decrease in oxygen or blood flow
    • 3. free radicals can damage DNA, mitochondria, or cell membrane
  12. Why is apoptosis sometimes desireable?
    In apoptosis, cytoplasmic contents are neatly engulged by macrophages. These components, if exposed to the body, can cause inflammation and trigger an autoimmune response.
  13. What are the 2 main types of necrosis? What is the main chemical reaction in each?
    • 1. coagulative necrosis- semisolid appearance due to protein precipitation
    • 2. liquefactive necrosis- soft and mushy due to enzymatic hydrolysis
  14. What are the 5 cardinal signs of acute inflammation?
    • 1. heat
    • 2. redness
    • 3. swelling
    • 4. pain
    • 5. functional impairment
  15. What is the only granulocyte that does not leave the blood vessels? What cell in the connective tissue is functionally similar to it?
    Basophil; Mast cell
  16. Describe the two phases of inflammation and the processes of each.
    • 1. Vascular phase- intitial reduced blood flow; increased blood flow; fluid leakage into tissues from vascular endothelium;
    • 2. Cellular phase- margination; adhesion; transmigration (diapedesis)
  17. Acute Rhinitis (common cold): type of inflammation?
    Hyperplasia of epithelium to mucus producing cells and seromucous inflammation
  18. Pericarditis: type of inflammation?
    Fibrinous inflammation (serum contains fibrinogen that polymerizes to fibrin outside blood vessels)
  19. Diptherial Infection: type of inflammation?
    Fibrinous mucosal inflammation
  20. Antibiotic associated enterocolitis: type of inflammation?
    Fibrinous mucosal inflammation
  21. Apendicitis: type of inflammation?
    Fibrinopurulent inflammation
  22. Pyogenic meningitis: type of inflammation?
    acute suppurative (purulent) inflammation
  23. Suppurative bronchitis: type of inflammation?
    acute suppurative (purulent) inflammation
Card Set
Intro to Histopath Exam 7
Keywords and concepts from intro to histopathology lecture.