World History

  1. Who is Charles V?
    Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and ruled much of Germany.
  2. Who is Phillip II?
    Phillip II is Charles V's son who inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies. He was briefly married to Oueen Mary aka Bloody Mary.
  3. What is the Escorial?
    The Escorial was Phillip's gray granite palace that had massive walls and huge gates that demonstrated his power. The palace also reflected on his faith.
  4. What is inflation?
    Inflation is the decline in the value of money.
  5. What is the United Provinces of the Netherlands?
    The United Provinces of the Netherlands was when the seven northern provinces of Netherlands united and declared their independence from Spain.
  6. Who is El Greco?
    El Greco was a painter and in his paintings expressed emotion symbolically. Usually his techniques showed the deep Catholic faith of Spain. His real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos.
  7. Who is Velazquez?
    Velazquez was a painter and his paintings reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy. He was the court painter to Philip IV of Spain.
  8. What is Don Quixote de la Mancha?
    "Don Quixote de la Mancha" is a book written by Miguel de Cervantes published in 1605 often called the birth of the modern European novel. This book is about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights.
  9. Who is Rembranat van Rijn?
    Rembranat van Rijn was the greatest Dutch artist of this period. He painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and produced group portraits. One of his paintings is "The Night Watch."
  10. Who is Jan Vermeer?
    Jan Vermeer was an artist who was fascinated with the effects of light and dark. Often he painted women doing activities such as pouring milk or reading a letter.
  11. What are absolute monarchs?
    Absolute monarchs are kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries.
  12. What is divine right?
    Divine right is the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth.
  13. What was the Edict of Nantes?
    The Edict of Nantes was the declaration that the Huguenots could live in Peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities. This declaration was signed by Henry IV (of Navarre) in 1598.
  14. Who was Cardinal Richeliieu?
    Cardinal Richeliieu was the ruler of France. He wanted to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy and wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe.
  15. What is skepticism?
    Skepticism is the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain.
  16. Who is Louis XIV?
    Louis XIV aka the Sun King was a powerful ruler and became the most powerful ruler in French history. He became king in 1643 at the age of 4.
  17. Who is Cardinal Mazarin?
    Cardinal Mazarin, Ruchelieu's succesor, was the true ruler of France after Louis XII died. he Many people in France hated him because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government.
  18. What were intendents?
    Intendents were government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
  19. Who was Jean Baptise Colbert?
    Jean Baptise Colbert was Louis's minister of France who assisted Louis to help France attain economic, political, and cultural brillance. He believed in the theory of mercantilism.
  20. Who was Charles VI?
    Charles VI was the ruler of Hapsburg whos reign started in 1711. He persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared they would recognize Charles's eldest daughter as the heir to all his territories.
  21. What colonies were included in the Hapsburg?
    Included in the Hapsburg were Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia colonies.
  22. Who was Maria Theresa?
    Maria Theresa was Charles IV daughter who Charles wanted to become the heir. However, she faced many years of war her main enemy being Prussia.
  23. Who were the Hohenzollerns?
    The Hohenzollerns were Prussia's ruling family had ambitions that threatened to upset central Europe's delicate balance of power. They built up their state from a number of small holdings.
  24. What were Junkers?
    Junkers were Prussia's landowning nobility who resisted the king's growing power. King Frederick William I gave the Junkers the exclusive right to be officers in his army. This resulted in Prussia becoming a rigidly controlled, highly militarized society.
  25. Who was Frederick the Great?
    Frederick the Great was Frederick II who followed his father's military policies, but softened some of his faher's laws. Frederick encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. When his father was still in rule Frederick and a friend ran away in 1730 and his father punished him by making him watch his friend be beheaded.
  26. What was Silesia?
    Silesia was an Austrian land which bordered Prussia. It produced iron ore, textiles, and food products.
  27. What was the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle?
    The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which Maria Theresa lost Silesia in 1748.
  28. Who was Ivan the Terrible?
    Ivan the Terrible was Ivan IV who came to throne in 1533 at the age of three. Boyars fought to control Ivan and when he was 16 he seized power and had himself crowned czar.
  29. What was a boyar?
    A boyar was Russia's landowning nobles.
  30. Who was Peter the Great?
    Peter the Great became sole ruler of Russia (part of Romanov dynasty) in 1696 however, before 1696 he shared the throne with his half brother. Peter the Great was one of Russia's greatest reformers, he continued the trend of increasing the czar's power.
  31. Who is Catherine the Great?
    Catherine the Great was the ruler of Russia from 1762 to 1796. She ruled with absolute authority but also sought to reform Russia. Catherine is the ruler most admired by philosophes.
  32. What was the Holy Synod?
    The Holy Synod was the governing body created by Peter the Great in 1721 to head the Russian Orthodox Church.
  33. What was westernization?
    Westernization was Peter's goal of using western Europe as a model for change. Peter saw it as a way to make Russia stronger.
  34. What is St. Petersburg?
    St. Petersburg was a city that Peter began to build in 1703 on Swedish lands occupied by Russian troops.
  35. What was the Magna Carta?
    Magna Carta was a document that John's nobles forced him to agree to on June 15, 1215. This document guaranteed certain basic political rights.
  36. Who was James I?
    Jame I who was James Stuart was Elizabeth's cousin. He was already the king of Scotland but became king of England in 1603.
  37. Who was Charles I?
    Charles I was James I son in 1625 when James I died Charles took the throne. Charles was at war with both Spain and France which made him always need money.
  38. Who was Oliver Cromwell?
    Oliver Cromwell was a general founded by the Puritans in 1644. In 1645, Cromwell's New Model Army began defeating the Cavaliers, and the tide turned toward the Puritans and in 1647 they held the king prisoner.
  39. What were Royalists/Cavaliers?
    Royalists/Cavaliers were those who remained loyal to Charles.
  40. What is the Restoration?
    The Restoration is the period of Charles II's rule because Charles II restored the monarchy.
  41. What is habeas corpus?
    Habeas corpus is a guarantee of freedom passed by the Parliament in 1679. Habeas corpus means "to have the body." This law gave every prisioner the right to obtain a writ or document ordering that the prisioner be brought before a judge to specify the charges against the prisioner.
  42. Who was James II?
    James II was the king in 1685 after Charles II. He offended his subjects by displaying his Catholicism.
  43. What was a constitutional monarchy?
    A constitutional monarchy was where laws limited the ruler's power.
  44. What was the English Bill of Rights?
    The English Bill of Rights was a document to make clear the limits of royal power which Parliament drafted in 1689.

    • Document listed things a ruler couldn't do:
    • -no suspending of Parliament's laws
    • -no levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament
    • -no interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
    • -no penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
  45. What is a cabinet?
    A cabinet is a group of government ministers or officials.
  46. Who were William of Orange and Mary?
    William of Orange and Mary were married. Mary was the daughter of James and was Protestant. William of Orange was a prince of the Netherlands. William led his army to London in 1688 and James fled to France, this is known as the Glorious Revolution.
  47. What was the Versailles?
    Versailles was the splendid palace in which Louis XIV reigned.
Card Set
World History
Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800