1. Steps involved in production of turkey meat
    • (all in)
    • Turkey breeders
    • fertile eggs production
    • hatchery
    • DO "poults"
    • grower farms
    • 14-22wks (wide variation depending on what they will be used for)
    • culled and processed
  2. Selection characteristics (turkey)
    • improved FCR (not as good as broiler ckn, but still good!)
    • increased breast meat yield and meatier thighs
    • preference for white feathered varieties
  3. Housing for turkeys
    • Controlled environment:
    • fan ventilation, fully enclosed, artificial lighting
    • suited to all climates
    • pole barn: open sided w/ fixed windows on side walls, more suited temperate climates
    • free range: as for pole barn but access to pastureland (open door)
  4. Turkey breeders (hens)
    • lighting: program required to induce a female turkey to lay eggs
    • the hens are lit at 30weeks old (light hours increased)
    • during a 25 week laying cycle, a hen lays 100-120 eggs (in lifetime)
    • DO-36hrs= 23 hours Light, 1 hour dark high intensity
    • 38hrs-18weeks= 14-16 L, 8-10 D medium intensity
    • 18wks-29.5wks= 8 L, 14 D, medium intensity
    • 29,5wks- end of production 14-16 L, 8-10 D high intensity (time to breed!)
  5. Turkey breeders (male- stags or toms)
    • breeding males usually kept separate from females (separation males from females (6-8 weeks)
    • females ar AI!!!!
    • lighting program males changed at 24weeks to stimulate semen production 14hrs L
  6. Semen collection from the stages
    • benefits of AI:
    • fewer males per number of females
    • less damage to females
    • improved fertility
    • stags/toms are milked at least once per week (sperm cannot be stored)
  7. AI of the hens
    • deposition near sperm host glands (above vagina, below oviduct (through cloaca))
    • insemination every 2-3 weeks
  8. Turkey eggs and Poults
    • Eggs are tan w/ brown specks and are larger than chicken eggs
    • inclubation period= 28 days (vs. 21)
    • a DO turkey is called a poult
    • a poult doubles it's weight w/in the first week
  9. Growing commercials objectives:
    • to provide an environment that maximises feed consumption and allows birds to grow to their potential
    • to minimise stresses that neg. impact growth potential
    • to achieve live performance goals
  10. brooding and rearing commercials
    • housing type and design
    • equipment: feeders, drinkers, litter, brooders, surrounds
    • site prep: 24 hours prior to poult arrival
    • stocking density (<38kg/m2)
    • ventilation and temp (artificial heating required ~ 6 weeks)
    • lighting (from 2 weeks- intermittent lighting, 6 x 2 L and 2D; traditionally 16L)
    • maybe requirement to beak trim (2-5wks) and de snood males <3weeks)
  11. brooding and rearing nutrition
    • poults need to be coaxed to eat and drink
    • phase feeding, ad libatum, biggest expense
  12. Grow out period for commercials
    • hens are usually sold as whole birds (14 weeks= 7.5kg)
    • stags are usually sold for futher processing: 20 wks= 16kg, 40 kg of feed!
Card Set
Poultry (Turkey)