1. narcotic
    the most common term for morphine and similar acting drugs is .........which is a derivation of the Greek word for stupor
  2. Opioids
    • 1. generally has sedative-hypnotic and analgestic properties
    • 2. it acts stereospecificly in endorphine/ enkephalin receptors
    • 3. its actions are antagonized by naloxone
  3. Opioids
    • in essence narcotics are restricted to
    • a. extracts of opium (opiates)
    • b. opiate derivatives
    • c. synthetic drugs with opiate properties
    • d.(all three of the above may be referred to as .......)
  4. Enkephalins
    5 amino acids
  5. endorphins
    16-30 amino acids
  6. Dynorphins
    17 amino acids
  7. endogenous opiod peptides
    believed to function as neurotransmitters, neurohormones, or neuromodulators, their physiological role is not well understood.
  8. mu receptors
    receptors are localized in pain modulating brain regions are morphine- and naloxone -selective mediate the euphorigenic properties of typical opiates (such as morphine)
  9. Delta receptors
    • these receptors are more enkephalin selective
    • they enduce spinal analgesia
  10. Kappa receptors
    • 1) these receptors have a high affinity for dynorphin and may mediate spinal analgesia as well as sedation
    • 2) They also probably mediate aversive psychosis mimicking opiate effects
  11. meperidine (Dermerola)
    a number of other drugs with very similar properties but, vary dissimilar structures have also been synthesized
  12. reduce pain
    the most prominent Clinically useful effect of opiates is to
  13. "rush"
    intravenous administration or "mainlining" results in what subjectively referred to as a
  14. actions of the medulla include:
    • 1. decrease in the rate and depth of breathing (respiratory depression)
    • 2. a suppression of the cough reflex (antitussive effect)
    • 3. the induction of nausea and vomiting
  15. "pinpoint pupil" or miosis
    narcotics also have peripheral actions most notably they include marked pupillary construction
  16. depress
    opiates ..... the rate of neuronal firing in most areas of the brain but some groups of neurons increase their rate of firing possibly because they are released from the inhibitory control by other neurons whose rate of firing has been directly depressed by opiates
  17. mu opiates
    the euphoria tranquility and other mood changes induced by ....... agonists have been linked to their ability to indirectly activate dopaminergic neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens
  18. heroin
    for example withdrawal from .... which induces a rapid and intense effect of short duration is relatively intense, but dissipates within a few days
  19. methadone
    on the other hand, withdrawal from ...which induces a gradual and mild effect of long duration is relatively mild, but the syndrome takes several days to weeks to subside
  20. narcotic antagonists
    • Naloxone
    • Naltrexone
  21. Naloxone
    one disadvantage of ...... its short duration of narcotic block
  22. Naltrexone
    this compound has a blocking action of up to 3 days and eliminates the need for several daily administrations
  23. methadone
    the substitute narcotic has more socially acceptable qualities and fewer disruptive effects on the individual
  24. maintenance drug or as a drug that can be administered in smaller and smaller
    • methadone is used either as a .... or as a ........ to gradually reduce the addicts physical dependence on narcotics
    • (most studies indicate that the former approach is more satisfactory in decreasing illicit narcotic use.
  25. buprenorphine
    another opiate drug used in the treatment of narcotic dependence is ..... which does not induce dangerous respitatory depression
  26. "maturing out"
    many of those who do not seek treatment may eventually become abstinent on their own a process called
  27. "speed ball"
    one possible cause of death is an interaction between an opiate and another drug (e.g alcohol cocaine= ......) or sedative hypnotic
  28. anaphylactic shock
    possible narcotics related deathes are due to ........ an immediate extreme allergic reaction
  29. Pavlovian Conditioning model
    ....... has been proposed as a factor (if the person takes a drug in a novel environment the CR is not present to counteract the UR)
Card Set
ch 10