Weather and Climate Final

  1. How is the Koppen System classified?
    vegetation boundaries
  2. Describe the A climates.
    • Tropical Wet (Af)
    • Monsoonal (Am)
    • Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
    • exist almost entirely between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
  3. Why does the weather never change in a Tropical Wet climate?
    • almost always under the ITCZ
    • always under a maritime tropical air mass
    • ex. Dominican Republic
  4. What are the summers and winters like in a Monsoonal climate?
    • super wet summer
    • super dry winter
    • ex. India, Myanmar
  5. What are the summers and winters like in a Tropical Wet and Dry climate?
    • dry summers
    • wet winters
    • ex. South America, the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti
  6. Describe B climates.
    • Dry
    • Potential evaporation exceeds annual precipitation
    • most prevalent climate type
  7. What causes subsidence in the subtropical deserts?
    subtropical highs
  8. How are the steppes different from the deserts?
    they are wetter and cooler
  9. What is the reason for the low moisture in dry deserts?
    rainshadow effect
  10. Describe C climates.
    • mild mid-latitude climates
    • no severe winter temperatures
  11. Describe the weather in a Meditterranean climate.
    • dry summers
    • winters can be wet
    • subtropical highs in summer
    • mid-latitude cyclones in winter
    • ex. Los Angeles, South Africa
  12. Describe the weather in a humid subtropical climate.
    • subtropical highs bring warm and moist air during summer
    • mid latitude cyclones in winter
    • hurricanes
  13. Describe the D climate.
    • severe mid-latitude climates
    • jet stream often overhead in summer
    • Northern Hemisphere only
    • summers can get hot because of continentality
  14. Why are there no D climates in the Southeren Hemisphere?
    because there are no high latitudes and there is no land at Antarctica
  15. Describe the E climate.
    • Polar
    • very dry and cold because of high latitudes
  16. What are the anthropogenic sources of particulates?
    fuel combustion and earth-moving
  17. What are the anthropogentic sources of carbon monoxide?
    motor vehicles
  18. What are the anthropogenic sources of sulfur dioxide?
    • coal and oil combustion
    • copper-smelting
  19. What is glaciation?
    where glaciers are likely to expand during periods of minimal seasonality (wetter winters and cooler summers)
  20. What is natural deglation initiated by?
    Earth's orbital cycles
  21. the amount of suspended solid and liquid material in the air
  22. cycle of 100,000 years
    nearly circular to elliptical
  23. cycle of 41,000 years
    Earth's tilt varies between 22.1" and 24.5"
  24. cycle of 27,000 years
    change in orientation of Earth's axis
    becomes more important with an increase in eccentricity
  25. the collective bunch of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession
    Milankovich Cycles
  26. Where glaciers are likely to expand during periods of minimal seasonality (wetter winters and cooler summers)
  27. How is national deglaciation initiated?
    by the Earth's orbital cycles
  28. What does the Faint Young Sun paradox explain to us?
    The intensity of solar radiation was much lower 4 billion years ago, but the Earth was not completely frozen
  29. self regulating and inhibits further change
    negative feedback
  30. enhances change in a particular direction
    positive feedback
  31. Where the expansion of ice sheets leads to higher albedo-more cooling
    pisitive feedback mechanism
    Ice-Albedo Feedback
  32. Where warming leads to increased evaporation and a higher water vapor content and turns more "trapping" of llongwave radiation
    positive feedback mechanism
    Evaporation of Liquid Water
  33. CO2 fertilization; vegetation as a sink for CO2
    negative feedback mechanism
    Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions
  34. What are the four atmospheric controls of Air Pollution?
    • Emissions
    • Production
    • Transport
    • Ventilation
  35. In what part of the country are pH levels the highest?
    the western United States
  36. What do changes in Land Configuration explain?
    changes in the sizes and locations of the continents or Continental Drift
  37. What do satellite records show about the Arctic region?
    The lower troposphere of the Arctic region has been warming twice as much as global warming
  38. What kind of weather patterns result from glaciation?
    wetter winters and cooler summers
Card Set
Weather and Climate Final
Weather and Climate