How is the Koppen System classified?
Describe the A climates.
- Tropical Wet (Af)
- Monsoonal (Am)
- Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
- exist almost entirely between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Why does the weather never change in a Tropical Wet climate?
- almost always under the ITCZ
- always under a maritime tropical air mass
- ex. Dominican Republic
What are the summers and winters like in a Monsoonal climate?
- super wet summer
- super dry winter
- ex. India, Myanmar
What are the summers and winters like in a Tropical Wet and Dry climate?
- dry summers
- wet winters
- ex. South America, the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti
Describe B climates.
- Potential evaporation exceeds annual precipitation
- most prevalent climate type
What causes subsidence in the subtropical deserts?
How are the steppes different from the deserts?
they are wetter and cooler
What is the reason for the low moisture in dry deserts?
Describe C climates.
- mild mid-latitude climates
- no severe winter temperatures
Describe the weather in a Meditterranean climate.
- dry summers
- winters can be wet
- subtropical highs in summer
- mid-latitude cyclones in winter
- ex. Los Angeles, South Africa
Describe the weather in a humid subtropical climate.
- subtropical highs bring warm and moist air during summer
- mid latitude cyclones in winter
Describe the D climate.
- severe mid-latitude climates
- jet stream often overhead in summer
- Northern Hemisphere only
- summers can get hot because of continentality
Why are there no D climates in the Southeren Hemisphere?
because there are no high latitudes and there is no land at Antarctica
Describe the E climate.
- very dry and cold because of high latitudes
What are the anthropogenic sources of particulates?
fuel combustion and earth-moving
What are the anthropogentic sources of carbon monoxide?
What are the anthropogenic sources of sulfur dioxide?
- coal and oil combustion
What is glaciation?
where glaciers are likely to expand during periods of minimal seasonality (wetter winters and cooler summers)
What is natural deglation initiated by?
Earth's orbital cycles
the amount of suspended solid and liquid material in the air
cycle of 100,000 years
nearly circular to elliptical
cycle of 41,000 years
Earth's tilt varies between 22.1" and 24.5"
cycle of 27,000 years
change in orientation of Earth's axis
becomes more important with an increase in eccentricity
the collective bunch of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession
Where glaciers are likely to expand during periods of minimal seasonality (wetter winters and cooler summers)
How is national deglaciation initiated?
by the Earth's orbital cycles
What does the Faint Young Sun paradox explain to us?
The intensity of solar radiation was much lower 4 billion years ago, but the Earth was not completely frozen
self regulating and inhibits further change
enhances change in a particular direction
Where the expansion of ice sheets leads to higher albedo-more cooling
pisitive feedback mechanism
Where warming leads to increased evaporation and a higher water vapor content and turns more "trapping" of llongwave radiation
positive feedback mechanism
Evaporation of Liquid Water
CO2 fertilization; vegetation as a sink for CO2
negative feedback mechanism
What are the four atmospheric controls of Air Pollution?
In what part of the country are pH levels the highest?
the western United States
What do changes in Land Configuration explain?
changes in the sizes and locations of the continents or Continental Drift
What do satellite records show about the Arctic region?
The lower troposphere of the Arctic region has been warming twice as much as global warming
What kind of weather patterns result from glaciation?
wetter winters and cooler summers