1. What does Benign mean?
    altered cell growth that is harmless
  2. Define malignant cell growth?
  3. Which type of cells divide throughout the life span?
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Mucous
    • Lungs
    • Stomach
    • Bladder
  4. Which type of cells stop growing by cell division after development is complete?
  5. Define Hypertrophy?
    Growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging each cell
  6. What is Hyperplasia?
    growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging the number of cells
  7. What is any new or continued cell growth not needed for normal development or replacement of dead and damaged tissues?
  8. Name 2 reasons why cells divide or undergo mitosis?
    • To develop normal tissue
    • To replace lost or damaged normal tissue
  9. Define apoptosis?
    • Programmed cell death
    • Cells have a finite life span
  10. Morphology is defined as?
    the feature in which each normal cell type has a distict and recognizable apperarance, size, and shape
  11. How much of the space the nucleus is taking up of the cell?
    Nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
  12. What is contact inhibition?
    Stopping of further rounds of cell division when the surrounded and touched by other cells
  13. What are the features of normal cells?
    • Slow cell division
    • Specific morphologic features
    • Small Nuclear-cytoplasmic ration
    • Many differentiated functions
    • Tight adherence
    • Nonmigratory
    • Well regulated growth
    • Diploid chromosomes
    • Low mitotic index
  14. Features of Embryonic cell division?
    • Rapid and continous cell division
    • Anaplastic morphology
    • Large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
    • No specific functions yet
    • Loose adherence
    • Migratory
    • Well regulated cell growth
    • Contact inhibition
    • Diploid chromosomes
    • High mitoic index
  15. What is pluripotency?
    • The unlimited potententioal
    • of embryonic celss o mature into any body cell
  16. Commitment?
    when early embryonic cells start changing into differentiated cells
  17. Features of benign tumor cells?
    • Continuous or inappropriate cell growth
    • Specific morphologic features
    • Small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
    • Many differentiated functions
    • Tight adherence
    • Nonmigratory
    • Expansion growth
    • Diploid chromosomes
    • Low mitotic index
  18. What is expansion growth?
    It increasesthe size by increasing the number of cells
  19. Features of cancer cells?
    • Rapid or continuous cell division
    • Anaplastic appearance
    • Large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
    • Some or no differentiated functions
    • Loose adherence
    • Migratory
    • No contact inhibition
    • abnormal chromosomes (Aneuploid)
  20. What does metastasize mean?
    To spread cancer from the main tumor site to many other sites
  21. What does aneuploid mean?
    more or fewer than 23 chromosomes pairs
  22. What is another name for cancer?
    • Carcinogenesis
    • Oncogenesis
  23. Define malignant transformation?
    The process of changing a nomal cell into a cancer cell
  24. The 4 phases of malignant transformation?
    • Initiation
    • Promotion
    • Progression
    • Metastasis
  25. Initiation is caused by what?
    Carcinogenesis caused by damage to the gene
  26. Define carcinogen?
    Substances that change the activity of a cell's genes so that they cell becomes a cancer cell
  27. 3 types of Carcinogens?
    • Chemicals
    • Physical agents
    • Viruses
  28. Define promotion?
    The enhancement of growth of initaited cancer cell
  29. What are promoter's?
    Substances that promote or enhance growth of an initiated cancer cell
  30. When is the latency period?
    The time between initiation and the development of a tumor
  31. Define Progression?
    The continued change of a cancer, making it more malignant over time
  32. What does metastasize mean?
    To spread cancer from the main tumor site to many other sites
  33. Bloodborne metastasis?
    when tumor cells relese intothe blood
  34. Common metastasis sites for breast cancer?
    • Bone
    • Lung
    • Liver
    • Brain
  35. Common metastasis sites for Lung Cancer?
    • Brain
    • Bone
    • Liver
    • Lymph nodes
    • Pancrease
  36. Common metastasis sites for colorectal cancer?
    • Liver
    • Lymph nodes
    • Adjacent structures
  37. Common metastasis sites for Prostate cancer?
    • Bone (spine, legs)
    • Pelvic nodes
  38. Common metastasis sites for (Melanoma) skin cancer?
    • GI tract
    • Lymph nodes
    • Lung
    • Brain
  39. Common metastasis sites for Pimary Brain cancer?
    Central nervous system
  40. How is cancer classified?
    By type of tissue from which they arise
  41. 2 types of cancer categories?
    • Solid
    • Hematologic
  42. Where do solid tumors come from?
    • Specific tissue like:
    • breast tissue
    • lung tissue
  43. Where do hemotologic tumors come from?
    • Blood forming tissue
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
  44. What is grading?
    • Classifies cellular differentiaion aspect of the cancer
    • G4 is a high grade tumor
  45. What is a high-grade tumor?
    • Aggressive
    • Spreads rapidly
    • Do not look like the tissue from which it arises
  46. What is Ploidy?
    • It classifies tumor chromosomes as normal or abnormal
    • Euploid or Aneuploid
  47. What is Staging?
    Classifies clinical aspect of the cancer
  48. Name 2 physical agents ths cause cancer?
    • Radiation
    • Chronic irritation
  49. The 2 types of radiation than cause cancer?
    • Ionizing
    • Ultraviolet
  50. Ionizing radiation is found in which elements?
    • Radon
    • Uranium
    • X-ray
    • Soil
    • Radium
  51. What are forms of UV Radiation?
    • Solar (Sun)
    • Tanning bred
    • Germicidal lights
  52. What is an oncovirus?
    • A virus that causes cancer by:
    • Breaking the DNA chain
    • Inserting their own genetic material
    • Mutate the cell's DNA
  53. Name cancers associated with a known viral origin?
    • Epstein-barr
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
    • HPV
  54. Name personal factors of cancer development?
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Immune function
  55. The seven warning signs of cancer?
    • C = changes in bowel or bladder habit
    • A = a sore that does not heal
    • U = unusual bleeding or discharge
    • T = thickening or lump in the breast
    • I = ingestion or difficulty swallowing
    • O = obvious change in wart or mole
    • N = nagging cough or hoarseness
  56. Primary prevention for cancer?
    Prevents actual occurance of cancer
  57. Secondary Prevention
    Use of screening for cancer
  58. How does the immune sytem protect the body from cancer?
    • Cell-mediated immunity
    • Helper T-cells
    • Natural killer cells
Card Set
cancer cells