Physiology Ch5

  1. What does the Law of mass Balance say?
    It says that if the amount of substance in the body is to remain constant, any input must be offset by an equal loss.
  2. Where does an Input of a substance into the body come from?
    Its comes from metabolism or from the outside envirnoment
  3. Where does the Out of substance into the body come through?
    The metabolism or excretion
  4. What is clearance?
    It is the rate at which a material is removed from the blood by excreation, metabolism or both.
  5. What clears substances from the blood?
    The liver, kidneys, lungs and skin
  6. What two things maintain homeostasis but they do not have to be in equilibrium with each other?
    Cells and extracellular fluid
  7. What is Chemical disequalibrium?
    Its means most solutes are concentrated in either one comparment of the other.
  8. What is Electrical Disequilibrium?
    When cation and anions are not distributed equally between the body compartments
  9. What is Osmotic Equilibrium?
    When water removes freely between the cells and the extracellular fluid
  10. Water always moves from what to what?
    Hyposmotic to hyperosmotic
  11. Cell membranes are what?
    Selectively Permeable
  12. What does the movement of a substance across the membrane depend on?
  13. Movement of molecules across membranes can be classified by?
    • 1. Energy requirements
    • 2. The physical means the molecule uses to cross the membrane
  14. Can Lipid-Soluble subtances diffue through the phospholipid bilayer.
  15. Less Lipid-Soluble molecules require assistance of what to cross the membrane?
    Membrane Protein
  16. What is Diffusion?
    It is the passive movement of molecules down a chemical gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  17. What is a passive movement of molecules from high concentration to an area of low concentration across a membrance and is directly proportional to membrance surface area, concentration gradient, and membrane permeability, and inversely proportional to membrane thickness.
    Simple Diffusion
  18. Membrane proteins have four functional roles which are?
    • Structural Proteins
    • Membrane-Associated enzymes
    • Receptor proteins
    • Transport proteins
  19. What are Structural Proteins?
    They maintain cell shape and form cell junctions
  20. What are membrane-associated enzymes?
    They catalyze chemical reactions and help transfer singals across the membrane
  21. What are receptor proteins?
    They are part of the body's signaling system
  22. What are transport proteins?
    They move many molecules into or out of the cell
  23. What froms a water-filled channels that link the intracellular and extracellular compartments?
    Channel Proteins
  24. What regulate movement of substances through them by opeing and closing and they are regulated by ligands by electrical state of the cell, or by physical changes such as pressure?
    Gated Channels
  25. What never forms a continuous connection between the intracellular and extracellular?
    Carrie Proteins
  26. What is Facilitate Diffusion?
    It is a Protein mediated diffusion
  27. What moves molecules against their concentration gradient and requires an outside source of energy?
    Active transport
  28. What kind of Active transport use energy that comes directly from ATP?
    Primary(Direct) active transport
  29. What active transport uses the potential energy stroed in a concentration gradient and is indirectly driven by energy from ATP?
    Secondary(Indirect) Active Transport
  30. What is the most important primary active transporter?
    Sodium-potassium ATPase
  31. What happens during Sodium-Potassium ATPase?
    Pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
  32. What is the ration of Na to K in Sodium Potassium ATPase?
  33. What is Membrane Recycling?
    It is when vesicles that come into the cytoplasm by endocytosis are returned to the cell membrane.
  34. What is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
    It when ligands bind to membrane receptors that concentrat in clathrin-coated pits?
  35. What is Clathrin-Coasted pits?
    It is the site of endocytosis
  36. What is Potocytosis?
    It when receptors are located in caveolae that have a nonclathrin protein coating.
  37. Does Exocytosis require ATP?
  38. What is Osmosis?
    The movement of water across a membrane in response to a concentration gradient.
  39. To compare solution concentration, we express the concentration in terms of _________, the number of particles per liter solution, expressed as milliosmoles per liter.
  40. What is Tonicity?
    Describes the cell volume change that occurs when the cell is placed in that solution
  41. What is Hypotionic Solution and Hypertonic solution?
    If the solution is Hypotonic then the cell should swell, if the solution is hypertonic then the cell should shrivel.
  42. What is it called when a cell is in a solution and it remains the same?
    It is in an Isotonic Solution.
Card Set
Physiology Ch5
Physiology: Membrane Dynamics