Cognitive Psychology was considered a "revolutionary" development in psychology because:
it was a radical departure from bahaviorism.
Cognitive Psychology studies all of the following except:
Although used often, the comparison between the computer and human information processing is oversimplified. Why?
Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiquities are removed before processing.
Your sorority sister argues that AI machines will become intent on domination of the human race as soon as they realize that they are intellectually superior to humans. As a psychology major, you scoff at this position and argue that AI machines will never come to the realization that they are smarter than humans because:
they don't have the self awareness necessary to come to this conclusion.
Dan is at an international food fest w/ his fraternity brother, Abayoumi. When Dan is served a heaping dish of Mopane worm stew, Abayomi tells him reassuringly, "That's good food"! Given that Dan understands the concept of food, Dan knows that:
it is okay to eat the worm stew.
The fact that ostriches and penguins are birds that don't fly is a limitation of the:
classical model of concept structure.
Which of the following best describes the difference between the classical model of concepts and the prototype model?
The classical model uses defining properties and the prototype model uses characteristics.
Problem solving in the real world often involves seeing and defining problems in situations that most others...
... don't see it as a problem.
Jim needs a backyard shed to house his motorcycle. Although he has never built a shed, he decides to build one and buys a book of professionally drawn detailed shed plans. In this situation, Jim is using a(n)...
Shantae is a sales representative and uses MapQuest to get driving directions to her clients' offices. Shantae is using a(n) _____ to get to her destinations.
An effective way to strategize your organization of subgoals is to ...
... work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal, and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problem-solving effort.
What is the main difference between an algorithm and heuristic?
An ALGORITHM always leads to a correct solution.
_____ is a characteristic of good problem solvers.
Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her junk mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper w/c she then just throws away. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective Styrofoam packing material. Suddenly, Monique gets the idea to empty her shredder and use the shredded junk mail confetti for packing material. Monique has...
... overcome functional fixedness.
Carla is a first-semester freshman at State University. She succeeded in high school by cramming for exams and relying on parental pressure to get homework done. Now, however, she is finding that these strategies are no longer viable ways to succeed. According to the text, Carla should...
... "think outside the box" in order to succeed in college.
Carlos believes that all of the people from another part of his town are snobs. He believes that the students from this area are rich and drive expensive sports cars to school. He is scheduled to perform w/ some of these students in an all-county musical presentation. If he assumes that these students will also be rich and snobby, he is using...
... deductive reasoning.
According to your textbook, whenever scientists use theories and intuitions to make predictions and then evaluate their predictions by making further observations, _____ is at work.
Bonnie and Clyde have decided to purchase a new entertainment center. Because this will be a major financial investment, they spend a lot of time researching their options. You, a psychology student, advise them to "sleep on it" before they come to any purchase decisions. Is this really a good advice?
Yes, research has shown that people who approach complex decisions by engaging in the least conscious thought select better products.
Dr. Happenchance sees about 20 patients a day. His last three patients have a couple of symptoms in common so he diagnoses them as having the same ailment. Dr. Happendance is running the risk of misdiagnosis because of the...
... confirmation bias.
Dr. Feelgood and Dr. Nogood both work at the local emergency room. Dr. Feelgood is almost always in a good mood whereas Dr. Nogood is seldom happy about anything. W/c physician would you want to be on duty if you have a medical emergency and why?
Dr. Feelgood; research shows that he will most likely come to the correct diagnosis more quickly than Dr. Nogood.
_____ is a characteristic of good critical thinkers.
Without critical-thinking skills, people are less likely to...
... stretch their minds.
Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?
She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with.
The fact that we hear about airplance crashes on the news more often than we hear about automobile crashes may lead us to believe that we are more likely to die in a plane than a car. This is an example of a(an)...
Experts are able to solve problem better than novices because experts have...
... more effective strategies.
Deana, a psychology major, is annoyed whenever celebrity experts are interviewed on talk shows regarding events outside of their realm of expertise. Why does this common occurrence annoy Deana?
Deana knows that an expert's ability to solve problems is often limited to a specific domain.
According to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, creative people tend to be eager to start each day because...
... they want to accomplish something meaningful every day.
A 6 year-old child w/ a mental age of 6 would have a ratio IQ of...
A high school football coach decides to use the time taken to run up 100 stairs as a test for running endurance. He tests every team member on 3 consecutive days and finds that the times for each person are very much the same on all three trials. His test for endurance appears to have good...
A psychologist has developed a new test to measure the verbal ability of third graders. To determine the range of scores (and what is a good and bad score), he gives the test to 10,000 third graders. In the future, he will compare the performance of others to this reference group. This process of determining meaningful scores establishes testing...
You have been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors want to eliminate all items that contain any possible culture bias. With this task in mind, w/c of the following questions would you eliminate first?
What is the name of the main character in the Wizard of Oz?
Which of the following would NOT be a case of mental retardation?
An adult who, after thirty years of normal intellectual functioning, is involved in an automobile accident and has suffered brain damage that has severly limited mental functioning.
Jorge's parents talked and communicate w/ him a great deal from the time he was born. Based on the research in the text, what would you predict for Jorge when his IQ is measured at age 3?
The more that Jorge's parents talked w/ him, the higher his score will be.
Which of Gardner's intelligence would be least important for a car salesperson?
Dhiraj has an insightful mind and excels at solving new types of problems with unique situations. Which of Sternberg's intelligences would best explain this?
_____ is an example of a condition w/c supports Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and abilities.
Infinite generativity refer to...
the ability to create unlimited numbers of meaningful sentences.
If the sound sequences "walk" and "ing" were combined to make "ingwalk", this would violate English...
If one were to translate "white house" to Spanish from English, it would be "casa blanca", or "house white". This demonstrates a difference in _____ between the two languages.
Evidence of the role of language in cognitive activities includes the fact that...
... memory is stored in the form of words.
Critics of the work of Benjamin Whorf maintain that...
... people's perceptions are independent of the words they know.
All the following provide evidence that cognition and language are separate skills EXCEPT...
studies of people with Down Syndrome.
Neuroscience research has shown that...
... in infants, increases in brain function match the beginning of language acquisition.
All of the following are recommended strategies for parents in talking to their babies except...
... using only words that your infant will be able to understand.
The term universal linguist refers to the idea that...
... infants can distinguish all of the sounds that make up human speech.
Critics of bilingual educational instruction...
... argue that bilingual education programs are placing immigrant children at a permanent disadvantage in American society.
When using the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer's _____; cognition as its _____.
Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument w/ the mention of _____, a task that only humans can perform.
developing new learning goals.
After reading the section of the textbook on concepts, Mary Jo comes to the conclusion that ...
... concepts are a form of cognitive efficiency and economy.
Which of the following statements indicate a problem w/ the classical model of structuring concepts?
Characteristics of concept are not always easy to define.