anatomy test

  1. Central
    brain and spinal cord
  2. Peripheral
    nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord (outside of the CNS
  3. Somatic
    Somatic nerve fibers that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles; under conscious control
  4. autonomic
    Visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
  5. identify the following structures on the neuron
    Image Upload 2
    • A. dendrites
    • B. axon
    • C. axon hillock
    • D. myelin sheath
    • E. node of ranvier
  6. leak channels
    channels always open (ungated): do not respond to any signals
  7. ligand-gated channels
    channels open when the appropriate chemical (neurotransmitted) binds
  8. voltage-gated channels
    channels open and close in response to membrane potential (V changes).
  9. label the following diagram, label presynaptic cell, postsynaptic cell, gated channels, synaptic cleft and synaptic vesicles.
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    • 1. presynaptic cell
    • 2. synaptic vesicles
    • 3. synaptic cleft
    • 4. gated channels
    • 5. postsynaptic cell
  10. Briefly list and describe the five steps of producing an action potential
    • STEP1: Resting state – all gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed
    • STEP 2: Voltage-gated Na+
    • channels open and Na+ enters the nerve cell
    • STEP 3: Na+ channels are inactivated and K+ channels activate; K+ leaves the cell
    • STEP 4: K+ channels remain open and Na+ channels reset
  11. Define motor homunculus and list two examples of areas that are disproportionately large in the motor homunculus
    • Motor homunculus: regions of neurons that control muscles in body areas having precise motor control.
    • Example 1: Face
    • Example 2: Hands
  12. Vestibular cortex
    responsible for balance
  13. Broca’s area
    controls muscles involved in speech production and plans speech and other motor activities
  14. Olfactory cortex
    allows for awareness of odors
  15. Dopamine
    pleasure neurotransmitter involved with smooth motor movements; deficient in those afflicted with Parkinson’s disease
  16. Endorphins
    • inhibit pain (labor, athlete); morphine and heroin bind to
    • endorphin receptors
Card Set
anatomy test
11, 12 part 1