Block 4 Pharm

  1. What are the Natural Penicillins?
    Penicillin G and Phenoxymethyl Penicillin (penicillin V)
  2. What are the longer half life Penicillin G
    • Procaine penicillin - 6 to 8 hour half life
    • Benzathine penicillin 6 day half life
  3. What are the penicillinase resistant(anti staphylococcal) penicillins
    • Methicillin- no longer used
    • Oxacillin parenternally administered
    • Nafcillin parenternally administered
    • Cloxacillin Given orally 50% oral availability
    • Dicloxacillin " " "
  4. What are the extended range penicillins (used more often for gram negative bacteria) all 1 hour half life
    • Ampicilln: Given P or O
    • Amoxicillin: given orally 75% oral availability
    • Ticarcillin
    • Piperacillin
  5. What does Probenecid do?
    Blocks urinary excretion of penicillins.
  6. What 2 penicillins are excreted into the biliary tract?
    Ampicillin only partly and Nafcillin mostly
  7. What is the mechanism of action of Penicillins?
    • Work best on actively proliferating organisms, they interefere with cell wall synth by:
    • Binding receptors on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
    • Inhibiting transpeptidases that are responsible for cross linking peptidoglycans
    • or activation of autolytic enzymes
  8. Mechanisms of microbial resistance to beta lactam antibiotice (penicillins)
    • Formation of Beta Lactamases that destroy the drug
    • Mutation of penicillin binding targets

    Alteration of porins to decrease penetration of the drug.
  9. What are the narrow spectrum penicillins?
    • G and V- used to treat :
    • Strep Pyo (group A)
    • Strep pneumo (if sensitive strain)
    • some gram positive anaerobes
    • Treponema pallidum
  10. Which penicilins are beta lactamase resistant?
    • Nafcillin, Oxacillin, Cloxacillin, and Dicloxacillin
    • used to treat sensitive strains of staph aureus and Staph epidermitis
  11. What are the 2 extended range penicillins?
    • Ampicillin and Amoxicillin- used to treat:
    • E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, H influenzae, H. pylori
    • Strep pneumo,
    • Listeria monocytogenes- all strains sensitive
    • Moraxella catarrhalis
    • Enterococci
    • Borellia bergdorfi
  12. What 2 drugs are used to treat pseudomonas and some gram negatives?
    Ticarcillin and Piperacillin
Card Set
Block 4 Pharm
Pharm 1 flash cards