PSYCH 100: Chpt 4

  1. Sensation
    dectection of physical energy by sense organs, which then sends info to the brain
  2. Perception
    thr brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs
  3. Attention
    is the taking possession of the mind in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought
  4. Transduction
    the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity
  5. Absolute Threshold
    • lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50% of the time
    • dividing line btwn what signal has detectable energy and what signal doesn't
  6. Difference threshold
    the minimum amount of stimulus intensity change required to produce a JND change
  7. Bottom-up processing
    analysis of the stimulus that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind
  8. Top-down processing
    information processing that is guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations
  9. Weber's law
    • constant proportional relationship btwn JND and orginal stimuli intesity
    • perceiving a difference btwn 2 stimuli, differing by constant %
  10. Consciousness
    • mental state
    • is continuum
    • attention is a gateway to consciousness
  11. Functions of attention
    • selection
    • vigilance
    • search
    • coordination
  12. Selection
    for focusing (what) on one out of many possible objects or trains of thought
  13. Vigilance
    for maintaining or concentrating on on-going activities
  14. Search
    for seeking information in the environment (external) and in the mind (internal)
  15. Coordination (resource)
    for organizing and managing several simultaneously occurring events or activities & making connections between seemingly unrelated events
  16. Dichotic Listening Test
    sending two different msgs in each ear...
  17. Attention:
    Automatic vs Controlled
    • Automactic:
    • highly practiced
    • unconscious
    • not remembered
    • fast
    • parallel

    • Controlled:
    • novel
    • conscious
    • remembered
    • slow
    • serial
  18. Cocktail Party Phenomenon
    • while being in the midst of many simultaneous converstaions, we are able to attend selectively to one of them
    • suggests that attention occurs late
  19. Subliminal Threshold
    refers to stimuli presented below one's absolute threhold (perception/awareness)
  20. Inattentional Blindness
    • refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst
    • e.g. change blindess is a type of IB
    • failure to perceive an event when out attention is directed elsewhere
  21. Sensory adaptation
    • dimished sensitvity to a stimulus as a consequence of constant stimulation by that stimulus
    • nerve cells fire less frequently
  22. Perceptual constancy
    • the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
    • shape
    • size
    • colour
    • brightness
    • loudness
  23. Brightness or intensity
    • intensity of reflected light that reaches our eyes
    • the amplitude x2
  24. Hue
    • colour of light
    • determined by wavelength
  25. Accommodation
    the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina
  26. Trichromatic Theory
    retina should contain 3 receptors that are sensitive to red, green, blue
  27. Opponent Process Theory
    • 4 primary colours combined in pairs
    • red-green
    • blue-yellow
    • black-white
  28. Law of...
    1) Proximity
    2) Good Continuation
    3) Common Fate
    • elements located closest to each other are perceived as belonging to the same figure
    • given 2 or more interpretation of elements that form the outline of the figure
    • elements that move together give rise to the perception of a particular figure
Card Set
PSYCH 100: Chpt 4