Ch. 31 Biology

  1. Corals are threatened what?
    global warming and pollution.
  2. Most corals have a symbiotic relationship with what?
  3. Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals)?
    · Polyp dominates life cycle (many associated with clownfish)
  4. Scyphozoa (true jellyfish, jellies)?
    • · Medusa dominates life cycle
    • · All marine
    • · Some are extremely poisonous
  5. Hydrozoa (hydrozoans)?
    • · Marine or freshwater
    • · Some exist as polyps only others as medusa only
    • · Most are colonial (hydranth, gonangium, Obelia medusa)
  6. Three class of cnidarians are?
    • Hydrozoa (hydrozoans)
    • Scyphozoa (true jellyfish, jellies) Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals)
  7. Cnidarians?
    • · Radial symmetry
    • · Diploblastic
    • · Two basic body plans: poly(sessile) and medusa (motile)
    • · Reproduce sexually
    • · Carnivorous
    • · Nerve net
    • · Gastrovascular cavity
    • · Possess unique stinging cells (cnidocytes)
  8. Ctenophores?
    • · Radial symmetry
    • · Diploblastic (epidermis and endodermis) with a mesoglea
    • · Bioluminescent
    • · 8 rows of comb-like plates (ctenes) composed of fused ciliaReproduce sexually
  9. The 3 major groups of sponges are?
    • Demosponges (most)
    • Glass sponges
    • Calcareous sponges
  10. Sponges?
    • Simplest animals.
    • · Lack true tissues; have specialized cells (choanocytes, amoebocytes)
    • · Adults sessile
    • · Body porous
    • · Skeletal elements: spicules (SiO2 or CaCO3) AND/OR sponging (protein).
    • · Filter feeders
    • Flow of water? Interior
    • · Reproduce asexually (budding/ fragmentation) or sexually (monecious/ dioecious)
  11. Eumetazoans?
    true tissues and exhibit symmetry
  12. Parazoans?
    no true tissues (sponges)
  13. Animal Phylogeny?
    Animal and fungi believed to have arisen from a common ancestor in opisthokont clade.
  14. How are most parasitic life cycles complex?
    • Must overcome hosts defenses.
    • Must be able to disperse to new host while current host is living.
    • Most have one or more intermediate hosts and several larval stages.
  15. What is precocial young?
    able to act like adults almost immediately
  16. What is altricial young?
    must depend upon parents
  17. How do females produce eggs?
    can produce many small eggs or few large eggs.
  18. No life cycle maximizes all benefits how?
    Characteristic or stage may improve performance in 1 activity, but reduce performance In another (trade-off)
  19. All animal life cycles have at least one dispersal stage. What are the two types of dispersal stages and there functions?
    • Sessile adults typically disperse as eggs or larvae.
    • Motile adults disperse when mature.
  20. What is direct development?
    no distinct larval/nymph stage or no metamorphosis; young resemble adults.
  21. What is indirect development?
    organism has distinct larval/nymph stage or goes thru metamorphosis; different stages specialized for different functions.
  22. The animal life cycles are?
    • 1.Development is indirect or direct
    • 2.All have at least one dispersal stage
    • 3.No life cycle maximizes all benefits
    • 4. Parasitic life cycles are complex
  23. Detritivores/scavengers?
    feed on dead organic material.
  24. Omnivores?
    will primarily anything, holding nutritional value.
  25. Parasites?
    derive nutrition from animal host; usually do not kill host; much time and energy devoted to dispersal.
  26. Predators?
    capture and kill large animal prey
  27. Herbivores?
    feed on plants; usually have long, complex guts.
  28. Filter feeders?
    filter small organisms and organic molecules from their environment; may be sessile or motile.
  29. What are the feeding strategies?
    • Filter feeders
    • Herbivores
    • Predators
    • Parasites
    • Omnivores
    • Detritivores/scavengers
Card Set
Ch. 31 Biology
Ch. 31 Biology