AP Euro 23 & 24

  1. Realism
    artistic style that arose in the mid-nineteenth century and dedicated to depicting society realistically without romantic or idealistic overtones
  2. Kulturkampf
    "culture war" Otto von Bismarck used the term to describe his fight to weaken the power of the Roman Catholic Church
  3. Gustave Courbet
    German realist painter in 1848 painted dirty grunting laborers as part of the realist style
  4. Edouard Manet
    painted a graphic realist nude called Olympia
  5. Verdi
    • 1. acronym for Vittorio Emmanuele Re d'Italia
    • 2. Giuseppe Verdi was a famous Italian Opera composer; wrote operas told of the downtrodden worker struggling against the tyrannical government
  6. Syllabus of Errors
    by Pope Pius IX; found fault with progress with liberalism and with modern civilization
  7. First Vatican Council
    1870 approved the dogma of papal infallibility (the pope under certain circumstances must be regarded by Catholics as speaking divinely revealed truth on issues of morality and faith)
  8. Leo XIII
    modernized the church by encouraging up-to-date scholarship in Catholic institutes and universities and by accepting aspects of representative democracy
  9. Organized Religion in Society
    continued to have powerful popular appeal; church attendance declined among workers and artisans but many in the upper and middle classes as well as the peasantry remained faithful; women's faith values increased as well
  10. Bernadette Soubirous
    had visions of the Virgin Mary; comanded to drink from the ground in Lourdes in southern France a spring appeared and the waters were said to have healing ailments
  11. Charles Darwin
    On the Origin of Species (1859); challenged Judeo-Christian dogma that humanity was a unique creation of God; theory of natural selection
  12. On the Origins of Species
    (1859); life had taken shape over millions of years before human existence and human development was the result of a very slow process known as evolution
  13. Natural Selection
    only the fittest survive; primal battle for survival and sexual selection of mates
  14. Gregor Mendel
    discovered the principles of heredity from science and genetics later developed
  15. Herbert Spencer
    • the "unfit" should be allowed to perish in the name of progress challenging the biblical teaching that the poor were valued;
    • opposed any attempt to soften the harshness of the struggle for existance; promoted racist, sexis,t and other discriminatory policies as a way of strengthening the nation the state
  16. Social Darwinism
    used their own theory of evolution to lobby against traditional Christian charity and fairness and promote racism and sexism
  17. Auguste Compte
    French social philosopher; System of Positive Politics or Treatise on Sociology (1851); developed sociology and positivism
  18. Positivism
    a theory developed in the mid-nineteenth century that the study of facts would generate accurate or "positive" laws of society and that these laws could, in turn, help in the formulation of policies and legislation
  19. John Stuart Mill
    used Compte's theories to advocate widespread reform and mass education; On Liberty (1859)
  20. On Liberty
    (1859); Mill argued for the improvement of society generally, but he also expressed concern that superior people not be brought down by the will of the masses
  21. The Subjection of Women
    (1869) showed the family as a desptic institution, lacking modern values such as rights and freedom
Card Set
AP Euro 23 & 24
End of 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24