1. innervation of intrinsic back muscles
    posterior primary divisions of spinal nerves
  2. O: Lower ligamentum nuchae and SP of upper thoracic (T1-3)
    I: Mastoid process and adjacent occipital bone
    splenius capitis
  3. O: SP of upper thoracic (T1-3)
    I: TP of upper cervial (C1-3)
    splenius cervicis
  4. action of aplenius capitis and cervicis
    • acting alone: laterally bend and rotate the neck (turning the face to the same side)
    • acting together: draws head back
  5. O: iliac crest, sacrum, thoracolumbar fascia
    I: angles of lower ribs
    Iliocostalis lumborum
  6. O: lower ribs
    I: angles of upper ribs and TP of C7
    Iliocostalis thoracis
  7. O: upper ribs
    I: TP of mid-cervicals (C4-6)
    iliocostalis cervicis
  8. O: sacrum, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
    I: lower 10 ribs and TP of lumbar and thoracic vertebrae
    Longissimus thoracis
  9. O: TP upper thoracic vertebrae
    I: TP of vervical (up to C2 not including C1)
    logissimus cervicis
  10. O: TP upper thoracic, articular processes of lower cervical vertebrae
    I: mastoid process
    longissimus capitis
  11. erector spine muscles
    • aka sacrocpinalis:
    • iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
  12. action of erectors
    • muscles acting bilaterally extend column,
    • muscles acting on 1 side bend column laterally,
    • longissimus capitis extends head and turns face to the same side
  13. O: SP lower thoracic vertebrae
    I: SP upper thoracic vertebrae
    spinalis thoracis
  14. often only scant fibers
    spinalis cervicis
  15. now considered part of semispinalis capitis
    spinalis capitis
  16. muscles in the transversospinal muscle group
    rotators, multifidi, and smispinalis muscles
  17. O: TP
    I: SP of vertebrae one segment above orgine
    short rotators
  18. O: TP
    I: SP of vertebrae two segments above origin
    long rotator
  19. O: TP
    I: SP of vertebrae two to five segments above origin
  20. O: TP
    I: SP of upper thoracic vertebrae (T1-4)
    semispinalis thoracis
  21. O: TP
    I: SP of cervical vertebrae up to C2
    semispinalis cervicis
  22. O: TP
    I: occipital bone
    semispinalis capitis
  23. actio nof transversospinous muscles
    extend column and rotate it to the opposiite side
  24. between the SP of adjacent vertebrae- bst developed in cervical region- absent in thoracic area
  25. action interspinalis
    extend the vertebral column
  26. between the TP of adjacent vertebrae- best developed in cervical region- absent in most of the thoracic region
  27. action of intertransversarii
    extend column and bend toward the same side
  28. suboccipital muscles
    rectus capitis posterior major/minor and obliquus capitis inferior/superior
  29. origin of rectus capitis posterior major
    SP of C2
  30. origin of rectus capitis posterior minor
    posterior tubercle of C1
  31. INSERTION of rectus capitis posterior majoR
    occipital bone, inferior to inferior nuchal line
  32. insertion of rectus capitis posterior minor
    occipicatl bone, immediately medial to rectus capitis posterior major
  33. origin of obliquus capitis inferior
    SP C2
  34. origin of obliquus capitis superior
    TP C1
  35. insertion of obliquus capitis inferior
    TP C1
  36. insertion of obliquus capitis superior
    occipital bone, near inferior nuchal line
  37. action of suboccipital muscles
    extend and rotate the head to the same side
  38. innervation of suboccipital muscles
    suboccipital n (which is the posterior primary divison of C1)
  39. suboccipital triangle
    obliquus capitis superior/inferior and rectus capitis posterior major
  40. structures within the subossipital triangle
    suboccipital nerve and vertebral artery
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