Muscles Part 2

  1. origin
    end of the muscle that is attached to the immoveable bone
  2. insertion
    attached to the moveable bone
  3. body of muscle
    between origin and inseriton
  4. lever
    rigid pole that moves about a fixed point
  5. aponeurosis
    broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue
  6. explain how a skeletal muscle produces a movement
    by exerting a pulling force on the bone
  7. describe the 2 ways that a muscles are connected to bone
    tendons- cords of dense fibrous connective tissue

    aponeurosis- sheets of dense fibrous connective tissue
  8. tendons and aponeurosis are attached to what part of the bone
  9. what type of work does skeletal muscle perform
    mechanical movement
  10. muscles can only produce a force by doing what sort of action?
  11. explain how your muscles and bones act as levers and fulcrums
    • lever= bone
    • fulcrum= joint

    a lever is acted upon at 2 different point by 2 different forces
  12. explain how reisitance and effort act on a lever
    • resistance= a mass of the object that is being moved
    • effort= pull that is being exerted by muscle contracting
  13. the movement produced by muscles depends on what 4 things?
    • 1) attachment of origin and insertion
    • 2) type of joint
    • 3) tension of the ligaments
    • 4) muscle tension of opposing muscle
  14. why do muscles tend to work in pairs?
    • motion in both directions
    • to provide continuous movement
  15. closer the muscle is attached to the joint
    greater range in movement of bone the more effort to move bone
  16. further the muscle is attached from the joint
    • less range you have
    • takes less effort to move bone
  17. flexion
    descrease angle between the anterior surfaces of the articulating bones
  18. extension
    bring body part back after a flexion
  19. hyperextenstion
    extension beyond normal

    only certian joints allow this
  20. aBduction
    move away from midline
  21. aDuction
    move toward body
  22. rotation
    movement of a around its own longitudinal axis
  23. circumduction
    movement of the distal end of a bone in a CIRCLE
  24. pronation
    movement of the forearm

    palm turned inside out
  25. supination
    palm is turned out to inside
  26. eversion
    turning the foot so sole is outward
  27. inversion
    turning the foot so sole is inward
  28. protraction
    moving a part forward

    not common
  29. retraction
    moving a part backward
  30. elevation
    upward movment of a part of the body
  31. depression
    downward movement of a part of the body
  32. occipitails
    draws the scaple forward
  33. frontails
    draws the scaple forward

    raises eyebrows
  34. orbicularis oculi
    closes eyes
  35. orbicularis oris
    closes lips

    protudes lips
  36. zygomaticus major
    pulls edges of mouth (upward)
  37. temporalis
    closes mouth/ jaw
  38. masseter
    elevated mandible
  39. medial pterygoid
    • elevated mandible
    • moves mandible from side to side
  40. lateral pterygoid
    • depressed mandible
    • opens mouth
    • moves mandible side to side
  41. platysma
    • depresses mandible
    • used in extending lower lip
  42. sternocleidomastoid
    when both contract= draws head forward onto chest

    contracting one= draws the head left and right
  43. splenius capitis
    • extends head side to side
    • hidden by sternocleidomastoid
  44. spinalis
    • support vetebral column
    • maintains posture
    • moves vetebral column
    • maintain curve
  45. rectus abdominis
    compresses abdomen and flexed vetebral column
  46. external oblique
    compresses abdomen and flexes vetebral column
  47. internal oblique
    compresses abdomin and flexes vetebral column
  48. seratus anterior
    moves shoulders forward or raises ribcage
  49. transverse abdominis
    compresses abdomin
  50. pectoralis major
    adduct or flexes shoulders
  51. trapezius
    • raises shoulder upward
    • draws shoulder back
  52. deltoid
    abduct arm
  53. lastissimus dorsi
    adduct arm or extend shoulder
  54. biceps brachii
    flexes forearm
  55. triceps brachii
    extends forearm
  56. brachioradials
    flexes forearm
  57. supinator
    supinates forearm
  58. pronator teres
    turn down
  59. pronator quadratus
    pronates forearm
  60. flexor carip muscles
    flex wrist
  61. plamaris longus
    flex wrist
  62. flexor digitorum
    flex phalanges
  63. extensor carip muscles
    extends wrist
  64. extensor digitorum
    extends phalanges
  65. gluteus maximus
    extends thigh
  66. hamstring
    • extends lower leg
    • flexes thigh
  67. quadricepes femoris
    • extends lower leg
    • flexes thigh
  68. gastrocnemius
    • flexes lower leg
    • extends foot
    • calf
  69. soleus
    extends foot
  70. tibialis anterior
    flexes foot
  71. adductor magnus
    • flexion of thigh
    • adduct thigh
  72. adductor longus
    • flex thigh
    • bring leg back in midline
  73. pulled groin
    adductor muscles of thigh
  74. pulled hamstring
    • hamstring
    • thigh region
  75. pulled achilles tendon
    tendon connecting gastronemius to heel bone
  76. contusions
    • brusing due to blow
    • broken blood vessels
  77. umbilical hernia
    • children
    • wall of a cavity
  78. inguinal hernia
    • ingunial canal
    • through which testes decend to outside of body
  79. femoral hernia
    • femoral canal
    • through which blood vessels from the abdominal region to the heart or lungs
Card Set
Muscles Part 2