1. The difference btw. Race and ethnicity
    ** race contructed from biological traits and ethinicity constructed from culturaltraits**
  2. Ethnicity
    a socially defined category based on commom language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor (common ancestry that give them distinctive social identity)
  3. Race
    • a socially defined category based on real or perceived
    • biological differences between groups of people

    a. Socially conctructed concept

    • b. May be based on physical
    • characteristics such as skin color, facial features, hair texture and body
    • shape
  4. Difference btw. Race and ethnicity
    ** race contructed from biological traits and ethinicity constructed from culturaltraits**
  5. Racial Types
    1. Caucasoid- relatively light skins and fine hair (anglo/white)

    2. Negroid- people w/ darker skin and course hair (black/ african american)

    • 3. Mongoloid- people w/ yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on the eyelids
    • (asian/asian pacific islander)
  6. Limitations of Race Labels
    1. Race changes over time

    2. Race changes from place to place

    3. Becomes difficult because of mixing

    4. Disagreement about how many races actually exist
  7. Majorityand Minority Groups
    1. Minority groups (subordinate group)- socially disadvantaged group

    2. Majority (dominant group) – group that has access to resources and power

    3. Mathematical definition – focuses on the #, size of a group

    4. Sociological definition – focuses on the power of a group
  8. Characteristics of a Minority Group
    1. History of unequal treatment

    2. Distinquishing physical/cultural characteristics

    3. Involuntary membership

    4. Awareness of subordinate status (ingroup-outgroup)

    In group marriage (endogamy)
  9. Prejudiceand Discrimination
    • 1. Prejudice – an idea about the characteristics of a group that is applied to all members
    • of that group regardless of the evidence against it (thought/feelings/beliefs)

    • a. May target people of a particular
    • social class, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, physical disability, race or ethnicity

    • 2. Discrimination – unequal treatment of individual
    • based on their membership in a social group; usually motivated by prejudice
  10. Types of Prejudices
    1. Stereotypes– over generalization of a group of people

    2. Sexist – the belief that a particular gender has a higher status

    3. Ageism – looks at how society views age

    4. Racism –the belief that one race is superior than another

    a. Scapegoat – a weak, convenient and socially approved target

    b. Split labor market- an economic situation in which two groups of workers are willing to do the same work for different wages
  11. Types of Discrimination
    1. Individual discrimination – one person treats a group of people differently

    2. Direct discrimination – discrimination that is intended and is backed by laws and policy (Institutional)

    • Indirect discrimination – discrimination that is unintended but supported by laws and
    • policies
  12. Patterns of Interactions Majority/Minority Groups
    1. Cultural pluralism – occurs when racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles

    • 2. Assimilation – a process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and
    • conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group

    a. Cultural assimilation – a minority is encouraged or required to adopt the host group’s culture

    b. Structured assimilation – where members of the minority group are encouraged or required to participate in social organizations (schools, churches, workforce)

    c. Marital assimilation – where the minority group is encouraged or permitted to marry members of the dominant group

    3. Segregation – the physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities

    a. Done by law (de jure segregation)

    b. Done by customs and norms (de facto segregation )

    4. Genocide – the sytematic killing of one category of people by another
  13. Ways of reducing prejudice and discrimination
    1. Exposure

    2. Media

    3. Verstehen –“empathetic understanding” putting yourself in someone else’s shoes
  14. Families
    Family- a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including children
  15. Types of Families
    1. Family of orientation – the family into which an individual is born/adopted

    2. Family of marriage – the family that a person forms at his or her marriage

    3. Kinship – a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption

    4. Extended family – a family consisting of parents and children and well as other kin

    5. Nuclear family – family composed of one or two parents and children

    6. Blended family – family composed of multiple parents/step parents and children and stepchildren
  16. Marriage
    a legally recognized economic and sexual relationship between two or more persons that includes mutual rights and obligations and is assumed to be permanent.
  17. Marriage Patterns
    1. Endogamy – marriage between people of the same social category (social class/race/ethnicity/religion)

    2. Exogamy – marriage between people of different social categories (social class/race/ethnicity/religion)

    3. Monogamy – marriage that unites two partners

    4. Polygamy – marriage that unites two or more spouses

    a. Polyandry – marriage that unites one woman and two or more men

    b. Polygyny – marriage that unites one man and two or more women
  18. Residential Patterns
    1. Patriolocality – a residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the husband’s family

    2. Matriolocality – a residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife’s family

    3. Neolocality – a residential pattern in which a married couple lives apart from both sets
  19. Patterns of Descent
    1. Descent – the sytem by which members of a society trace kinship over generations

    a. Partilineal descent – tracking kinship through men

    b. Matrillineal descent – tracking kinship through women

    c. Bilateral descent – tracking kinship through women and men
  20. Theories of Families
    1. Functions of family (structural – functional analysis)

    a. Socialization

    b. Regulation of sexual activity

    c. Social placement

    d. Material and emotional security

    2. Inequality and Family (social – confict)

    a. Property and inheritance (family focused on wealth and class structure)

    b. Patriarchy (women tranformed into the sexual and economic property of men)-marriage often means a lifetime sentence to unpaid domestic labor

    c. Race and ethnicity – endogamous marriages support racial and ethnic hierarchies

    3. Construction of family model (social interaction)

    a. Social exchange theory – people shop around for partners to make them the best deal
  21. Stages of Family Life
    1. Courtship

    • a. Arranged marriages – alliances between extended families or similar social standing and usually involve the exchange not just of children but also
    • of wealth

    2. Romantic love – affection and sexual passion for another person

    3. Settling in (ideal vs. reality)

    • a. Infidelity – sexual activity outside
    • one’s marriage

    4. Child Rearing

    5. Empty Nest
  22. Alternative Family Norms
    1. One parent families

    • 2. Cohabitationn – the sharing of a
    • household by an unmarried couple

    3. Gay and lesbian partnership

    4. Singlehood
Card Set
Exam 3