1. Pluralism:
    Requires that racial and ethnic categories, although distinct, be given roughly equal social standing. ~U.S. Society is pluralistic in that all people in the US, regardless of race or ethnicity , have equal standing under the law~U.S. society is not pluralistic in that all racial and ethnic categories do not have equal social standing.
  2. Assimilation is the process by which:
    • minorities gradually adopt the patterns of the dominant culture.
    • ~Assimilation involves changes in dress, language, religion, values, and friends
    • ~Assimilation is a strategy to escape prejudice and discrimination and to achieve upward social mobility
    • ~ some categories of people have assimilated more than others
  3. Segregation:
    • Is the physical and social separation of categories of people.
    • ~Although some segregation is voluntary (for example, the Amish), majorities usually segregate minorities by excluding them from neighborhoods, schools, and occupations.
  4. Genocide:
    • Is the systematic killing of one category of people by another.
    • ~Historical examples; jews by nazis, westernized cambodians by Pol Pot.
    • ~ still happens today b, Rwanda, Serbs killing bosnians, balkans of estern europe.
  5. Pluralism:
    A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing.
  6. Assimilation:
    The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.
  7. miscegenation:
    biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories.
  8. Segregation:
    The physical and social separation of categories of people.
  9. African Americans:
    experienced two centuries of slavery. Emancipation in 1865 gave way to segregation by law (jim crow law). 1950s and 1960s civil rights movements.
  10. WASPS
    white anglo-saxon protestants. The majority of america.
  11. Scapegoat Theory:
    holds that prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged (dollard 1939).
  12. Authoritarian personality Theory:
    People who show strong prejudice toward one minority usually are intolerant of all minorities. Ridgly conform to conventional cultural values and see moral issues as clear-cut matters of right and wrong.
  13. Culture Theory:
    Prejudice is part of the culture in which we all live and learn.
  14. Conflict Theory:
    A tool used by powerful people to justify privilege for themselves but also to oppress others.
  15. Family Concepts:
    • ~In industrialized societies such as the united states, marriage is monogamous.
    • ~Many preindustrial societies permit polygamy, of which there are two types...polygyny and polyandry
    • ~Global perspective, patrilocallity is most common, industrial societies favor neolocality.
  16. Structural functional approach:
    identifies major family functions: socialization of the young, regulation of sexual activity, social placement, and providing material and emotional support.
  17. Social-conflict and Feminist approaches
    explore how the family perpetuates social inequality by transmitting divisions based on class, ethnicity, race, and gender.
  18. Symbolic-interaction and social-exchange approaches
    highlight the variety of family life as experienced by various family members.
  19. Courtship and Romantic love:
    Courtship based on romantic love is central to mate selection in the united states.

    Arranged marriages are common in preindustrial societies.
  20. Child Rearing:
    Family sized has decreased overtime as industrialization increases the cost of rising children.

    Fewer children are born as more women go to school and join the labor force.
  21. Family in later life:
    many middle-aged couples care for aging parents, and many older couples are active grandparents.

    The final transition in marriage begins with the death of a spouse.
  22. Divorce:
    four in ten of today's marriages will end in divorce. Remarriage creates blended families that include children from previous marriages.
  23. Family Violence:
    Family violence is a widespread problem. Most adults who abuse family members were themselves abused as children.
  24. Alternative Family Forms:
    One-parent families, cohabitation, gay and lesbian couples, and singlehood have become more common in recent years.
  25. Family:
    social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children.
  26. Kinship
    a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
  27. marriage
    a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexually activity, and childbearing
  28. extended family:
    a family composed of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family.
  29. Nuclear family:
    A family composed of one or two parents and their children; also known as a conjugal family.
  30. Endogamy:
    marriage between people of the same social category
  31. monogamy:
    marriage that unites two partners
  32. polygamy
    marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
  33. decent:
    the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations.
  34. momogamy:
    marriage between people with the same social characteristics.
  35. Family violence:
    emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another.
  36. cohabitation:
    the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple.
  37. Religion:
    • is a major social institution based on setting the sacred apart from the profane.
    • ~religion is grounded in faith rather than scientific evidence and people express their religious belefs through various rituals.
  38. Structural-Functional Approach: suggests
    that religion unites people, promotes cohesion, and gives meaning and purpose to life; through religion we celebrate the power of our society (Durkheim).
  39. Symbolic-Interaction Approach; explains
    that we socially construct religous beliefs; we are especially likely to seek religious meaning when faced with life's uncertainties and disruptions (berger).
  40. Social-conflict approach claims;
    that religion justifies the status quo. In this way, religion supports inequality and discourages change toward a more just and equal society (marks)
  41. Liberation Theology;
    a fusion of christian principles and political activism, tries to encourage social change.
  42. Weber argued to Marx, that
    religion can encourage social change. He showed how calvinist beliefs promoted the rise of industrial capitalism.
  43. Churches are;
    Religous organizations well integrated into their society. Churches fall into categories: state churches and denominations
  44. sects:
    are the result of religious division are are marked by charismatic leadership and members' suspicion of the larger society.
  45. Cults
    are religious organizations based on new and unconventional beliefs and practices.
  46. United states, religiously diverse. How is it measured
    • 85% of adults identify with a religion
    • 63% profess a firm belief in god
    • 31% say they attend religious services weekly
  47. episcopalians, Presbyterians, and jews enjoy _____ standing; lower social standing is typical of baptists, lutherans, and sects.
  48. In the US, some indicators of religiosity (like membership in mainstream churches) have declined, while........
    numbers in sects have increased.
  49. How many adults have changed religious affiliation at some point?
  50. Secularization:
    is a decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred.
  51. Civil Religion takes;
    the form of a quasi-religious patriotism.
  52. Fundamentalism;
    opposes religious accommodation to the world, interprets religious texts literally, and rejects religious diversity.
  53. profane;
    included as an ordinary part of everyday life
  54. sacred:
    set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence.
  55. religion:
    a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred.
  56. faith:
    belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence.
  57. totem:
    an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred.
  58. liberation theology:
    the combining of christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character.
  59. Charisma:
    extraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followers
  60. animism:
    the belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity
  61. religiosity:
    the importance of religion in a person's life
  62. Civil religion:
    a quasi-religious loyalty binging individuals in a basically secular society. navy church.
Card Set
Test #3 info