1. Florence Nightingale mid 1800s
    English woman studied in Germany with a Protestant order
  2. Nightingale focused on
    cleaning up wards and improving ventilation, sanitation, and nutrition, her group of 38 nurses lowered the death rate from 60% to 1%.
  3. Based curriculum on following beliefs:
    • 1. Nutrition is an important part of nursing
    • 2. Fresh, clean air is beneficial to the sick
    • 3. Sick people need occupational and recreational therapy
    • 4. Nurses meet pts personal needs, provide emotional support
    • 5. health and illness
    • 6. Continuing ed is needed for nurses
  4. Dorothea Dix- social worker
    appointed by the Union govt to organize women volunteers to provide aid to soldiers
  5. Clara Barton
    founded the American Red Cross
  6. Lillian Ward in 1893
    established the Henry Street Settlement in New York City. training period from 6 months to 3 years.
  7. Apprenticeship is
    learning by doing
  8. In an era when women were expected to remain at home and be subservient to men,
    nurses' training became a way to obtain further education and employment that could provide independence for women.
  9. 1892 New York Young Women's Christian Association
    started the Ballard School, which offered a 3 month course in practical nursing.
  10. Richard Bradley in 1907
    opened a practical nursing school in Brattleboro, Vermont.
  11. In 1918 group of women opened the
    Household Nursing School in Boston- later called Shepard Gill School of Practical Nursing.
  12. During WWI
    nurses worked behind the lines to care for sick and wounded soldiers.
  13. During WWII
    created a demand for nurses in military hospitals, and training programs had to be increased.
  14. Four common goals:
    • 1. promote wellness
    • 2. prevent illness
    • 3. facilitate coping
    • 4. restore health
  15. To accomplish goals, practical nurse takes on the role of
    caregiver, educator, collaborator, and manager.
  16. Interventions are
    actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health or prevent illness.
  17. Invasive procedures are
    procedures that require entry into the body.
  18. Nurses provide both
    physical and emotional care to patients.
  19. The Nurse's goal is to
    encourage growth toward wellness so that the patient can once again be self reliant.
  20. Aseptically
    without introducing infectious material
  21. Active listening is
    a therapeutic technique that helps the patient consider possible solutions when a problem occurs.
  22. A Nursing theory is a
    statement about relationships among concepts or facts, based on existing information.
  23. Nursing theorists generally base
    their beliefs on the relationships among humans, evnironment, health and nursing.
  24. Evidence based nursing involves
    the integration of best research evidence with clnical expertise and patient values to facilitate clinical decision making.
  25. Evidence based practice is using
    the best scientific evidence from research to guide decision making and used to help determine best practices.
  26. Virginia Henderson 1955
    To help clients gain independence in meeting their needs as quick as possible
  27. Dorothy Johnson 1968
    To reduce stress, allowing the client to recover as quickly as possible
  28. Martha Rogers 1970
    To achieve maximum levels of wellness
  29. Dorothea Orem 1971
    To care for and help clients with various needs attain self care
  30. Betty Neumann 1972
    To assist individuals, families, and groups to attain and maintain maximum levels of total wellness through purposeful interventions
  31. Sister Callista Roy 1976
    To identify types of demands placed on client and client's adaptation to them
  32. Jean Watson 1979
    To promote health, restore clients to health, and prevent illness.
  33. Rosemarie Parse 1987
    • 1. To assist client in interaction with the environment and in co-creating health
    • 2. To care about the client as an individual
  34. Patricia Benner and Judith Wrubel 1989
    To care about the client as an individual
  35. Authorized (Acts of Nursing)
    those nursing activities made legal through state nurse practice acts
  36. Lateral Expansion of Knowledge is
    an extension of the basic core of information learned in the school of practical nursing
  37. Peer Review is
    a formal evaluation of performance on the job by other LP/VNs
  38. Specialized Nursing Practice is
    a restricted field of nursing in which a person is particularly skilled and has specific knowledge.
  39. Therapeutic Regimens are
    regulated plans designed to bring about effective treatment of disease.
  40. Milieu
    one's environment and surroundings.
  41. Protocols are
    courses of treatment which include specific steps to be performed in a stated order.
  42. The Practice Acts
    generally define activities in which nurses may engage, state the legal requirements and titles for nursing licensure, and establish the education needed for licensure.
  43. Practice Acts are
    designed to protect the public, and they define the legal scope of practice.
  44. Nursing Process 1970s and 1980s
    organized, deliberate, systemic way to deliver nursing care.
  45. National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service (NAPNES) was
    formed to standardize practical nurse education and to establish licensure criteria for graduates.
  46. Diagnosis-related groups (DRG's)
    were created by Medicare in 1983 as an attempt to contain health care costs. Hospital receives a set amount of money for a patient who is hospitalized with a certain diagnosis.
  47. Integrated delivery network is
    a set of providers and services organized to deliver coordinated care to promote wellness, care for illness, and promote rehabilitation.
  48. Capitated Cost
    network performs these services that are paid a set fee for every patient enrolled in the network each year.
  49. 6 levels of care within health care system:
    • 1. preventive
    • 2. primary
    • 3. secondary
    • 4. tertiary
    • 5. restorative
    • 6. continuing care
  50. Health Maintenance Organization (HMOs)
    type of group practice, enroll patients for a set per month. One goal to keep pts healthy and out of the hospital.
  51. Preferred Provider Organization (PPOs)
    offer a discount on fees in return for a large pool of potential patients.
  52. Vigilant assessment which documentation is
    more important than ever in order to catch beginning complications before they become serious.
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