1. what are the three components of the peridontium
    • cementum
    • alveolar bone
    • periodontal ligament
  2. what are the had and soft tissues that support the teeth?
  3. what does the cementum come from?
  4. the cementum covers the entire _____
    root (similar to enamel covering the crown)
  5. what are the two attachments for the PDL?
    • cementum
    • alveolar bone
  6. t/f the cementum is vascular
    false-avascular and has no innervations it gets it from the periodontal ligament
  7. where does the cementum get its nutritional supply from?
    periodontal ligament
  8. how mineralized is the cementum?
  9. how mineralized is the enamel?
  10. how mineralized is the dentin?
  11. what induces the cells of the dental sac to differentiate into cementoblasts?
    newly formed dentin
  12. are there ameloblasts present on the root?
    no-enamel is not formed here that is why cementum is laid on top of dentin instead
  13. cells of the dental sac ______ into cementoblasts
  14. what is the cementum matrix called?
  15. what are cementoblasts that get caught in the matrix called?
  16. what are the ends of the periodontal ligament fibers that have embedded themselves into the cementum
    sharpey's fibers
  17. where do the cementum and enamel meet?
    cementoenamel junction
  18. what are the three types of cementoenamel junctions?
    • overlap
    • meet
    • gap
  19. with overlap the _____ overlaps the _____. why?
    • cementum overlaps the enamel
    • because the enamel was formed first
  20. with the overlap what can the cementum be confused with? why
    calculus because it is rough
  21. t/f when the cementum meets in the middle it has no problems
  22. what is it called when there is a space between the cementum and the enamel leaving the dentin exposed? what can this cause?
    • gap
    • hypersensitivity
  23. what are reversal lines
    after cementum resorption, you can tell where the resorption stopped and started laying down new cementum
  24. what lines are shown when the cementum was once broken down and then it rebuilt itself?
    reversal lines
  25. what lines are just like retzius lines with enamel and lines of von ebner with dentin?
    arrest lines (laid cyclically)
  26. what are the two types of cementum
    • acellular
    • cellular
  27. which type of cementum is the first to get laid down and has no cementocytes.
    acellular cementum
  28. why doesn't acellular cementum have cemetocytes
    laid slowly, cells don't get stuck
  29. what is the last cementum to get laid down and it has cementoblasts
    cellular cementum
  30. why does cellular cementum have cementoblasts
    laid quicker
  31. the cementoblasts that don't get stuck go where?
    migrate to the periphery of the cellular cementum and wait until they need to make more cementum
  32. what are three clinical considerations with cementum?
    • cementicle
    • cemental spurs
    • hypercementosis
  33. what is it called when the cementoblasts start to lay cementoid around cellular debris in the PDL
  34. t/f a cementicle starts attached to the tooth
    false-is floatin around in the PDL but can become attached to the tooth
  35. what is it called when the cementum is laid down more excessively at the CEJ
    cemental spurs
  36. what is a cemental spur similar to?
    enamel pearl
  37. t/f the cemental spur starts out floating in the PDL and becomes attached to the tooth
    false-starts connected to the tooth
  38. what is excessive production of cementum that results from occlusal trauma
  39. what directly surrounds and supports the teeth?
    alveolar bone
  40. what does the alveolar bone start out as?
    dental sac
  41. what is the alveolar bone formed from?
  42. how mineralized is the alveolar bone?
  43. the alveolar bone has _____ _____ that embed in the bone to anchor the teeth
    sharpey fibers
  44. what is the bone beneath the alveolar bone that forms the body of the mandible and maxilla?
    basal bone
  45. what does basal bone form?
    body of the mandible and maxilla
  46. what is the term for the individual tooth socket?
  47. what is an alveolus
    individual tooth socket
  48. what is the compact bone that lines the alveolus
    alveolar bone proper
  49. what is the alveolar bone proper called on a radiograph?
    lamina dura
  50. what is the most cervical rim of bone that should be 1-2 mm apical to the CEJ
    alveolar crest
  51. where should the alveolar crest be from the CEJ?
    1-2 mm apical of the CEJ
  52. what is the compact bone that makes the facial and lingual walls of the bone?
    cortical bone
  53. what is cancellous bone that fills the space between compact bone?
    trabecular bone (lacelike)
  54. what is the bone between the roots
    interradicular septum
  55. where is the interradicular septum located?
    bone between the roots
  56. what is the bone between each tooth?
    interdental septum
  57. where is the interdental septum located?
    bone between each tooth
  58. what type of xray can you see the interdental septum and the interradicular septum?
  59. what happens with the alveolar bone during orthodontic movement?
    the osteoclasts on the compressed side break down the bone and osteoblasts rebuild bone on the opposite side
  60. during orthodontic movement it puts pressure on the tooth, the ______ on the compressed side breaks down the bone and the ______ rebuild the bone on the opposite side
    • osteoclast
    • osetoblast
  61. if teeth are moved too quickly with ortho what can it cause?
    root resorption
  62. why must ortho treatment go slowly?
    to prevent root resorption and because only the matrix is laid down and it needs to mineralize to prevent teeth movement
  63. what stimulates the bone growth or bone breakdown with ortho movement?
  64. when the _____ _____ doesn't have constant stimulation of chewing and speaking what happens?
    • alveolar bone
    • it will start to resorb (USE IT OR LOSE IT!)
  65. what is a great way for edentulous patients to give the alveolar bone stimulation to prevent resorption
  66. what is the implant made out of?
  67. t/f with periodontal disease the body sends out osteoclasts to break down the bone
  68. why does the body break down the bone around teeth with periodontal disease?
    because the body doesn't want the infection to become systemic, it would rather lose the tooth than die
  69. what is a bone graft?
    it is the matrix (bone bait) placed to give the osteoblasts a place to lay down osteoid.
  70. when is a bone graft typically done?
    after extractions in prep for an implant
  71. why isn't an implant painful to place?
    no nerves in the bone
  72. what does the PDL start out as?
    dental sac
  73. what does the PDL form from?
  74. the PDL is ____ connective tissue that attaches the _____ to the ____
    • fibrous
    • tooth to the bone
  75. on a radiograph how does the PDL appear and what is it referred to as?
    • appears radiolucent
    • it is called the periodontal space
  76. how do you know how hard to bite?
    because of the PDL it transmits occlusal forces
  77. t/f the periodontal ligament transmits occlusal forces
  78. t/f the PDL is avascular
  79. what does the PDL give nutritional support to?
    alveolus, cementum and pulp
  80. onces the vessels of the PDL enter through the apical foramen what does it give nutrition to?
    the pulp
  81. what kind of nerves does the PDL have?
    afferent sensory nerves
  82. what are six cells that live in the PDL?
    • fibroblasts
    • osteoblasts/clasts
    • cementoblasts/clasts
    • epithelial rests of malassez
  83. where are osteoblasts/clasts located within the PDL?
    along the periphery of cementum
  84. what are epithelial rests of malassez
    started out ash HERS but got last (can become cystic)
  85. the PDL is made up of lots of ____ with many different names.
  86. what are two clinical considerations of the PDL?
    • occlusal trauma
    • periodontal disease
  87. what is occlusal trauma and what happens to the PDL?
    • clenching and grinding
    • PDL widens to withstand forces
  88. t/f occlusal trauma can be seen radiographically
  89. what happens to the PDL with periodontal disease?
    fibers get disorganized and lose their attachment because of the resorption of the bone and cementum
Card Set