consumer behavior

  1. Approach approach conflict
    When a consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives.
  2. Approach avoidance conflict
    When a consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative consequences.
  3. Avoidance avoidance conflict
    A choice involving only undesirable outcomes.
  4. Attribution theory
    An approach to understanding the reasons consumers assign particular meanings to the behaviors of others.
  5. Benefit chain
    Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits.
  6. Brand personality
    A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand.
  7. Consumer ethnocentrism
    Reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products.
  8. Coping
    Coping involves consumer thoughts and behaviors in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired positive emotions.
  9. Demand
    The willingness to buy a particular product or service.
  10. Emotion
    Strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior.
  11. Five-Factor Model
    A multitrait theory used to identify five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning.
  12. Involvement
    A motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting.
  13. Laddering
    A new projective technique used to construct a means-end or benefit chain.
  14. Latent motives
    Motives either unknown to the consumer or such that he was reluctant to admit them.
  15. Manifest motives
    Motives that are known and freely admitted.
  16. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    Based on four premises: (1) All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction. (2) Some motives are more basic or critical than others. (3) The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated. (4) As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play.
  17. Means�end chain
    Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits.
  18. Motivation
    The reason for behavior.
  19. Motive
    AA construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction for that response.
  20. Personality
    An individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations.
  21. Prevention-focused motives
    Prevention-focused motives revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to consumers' sense of duties and obligations.
  22. Projective techniques
    Designed to provide information on latent motives.
  23. Promotion-focused motives
    Promotion-focused motives revolve around a desire for growth and development and are related to consumers' hopes and aspirations.
  24. Regulatory focus theory
    • Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient.
    • Aesthetic appeal
    • Tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality.
  25. Affective component
    Feelings or emotional reactions to an object.
  26. Ambivalent attitude
    Ambivalent attitude, involves holding mixed beliefs and/or feelings about an attitude object.
  27. Attitude
    An enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment.
  28. Attribute framing
    Where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame.
  29. Behavioral component
    One's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity.
  30. Benefit segmentation
    Segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes.
  31. Cognitive component
    Consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object.
  32. Comparative ads
    Directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands.
  33. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
    A theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement as described earlier.
  34. Emotional ads
    Designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than provide information or arguments.
  35. Fear appeals
    The threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered.
  36. Goal framing
    Where "the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act."
  37. Humorous appeals
    Ads built around humor which appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad.
  38. Mere exposure
    The idea that simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive.
  39. Message framing
    Presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative or loss terms (negative framing).
  40. Multiattribute attitude model
    Based on the logic that because all of the components of an attitude are generally consistent, the more favorable the overall attitude is.
  41. One-sided messages
    Messages where the benefits of a particular product are presented without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess or any advantages a competitor might have.
  42. Source credibility
    Based on two basic dimensions, trustworthiness and expertise, it occurs when the target market views the source of the message as highly credible.
  43. Spokescharacters
    Can be animated animals, people, products, or other objects.
  44. Sponsorship
    A company providing financial support for an event.
  45. Testimonial ad
    A person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or idea.
  46. Two-sided message
    Messages that provide good and bad points of a particular product.
  47. Utilitarian appeals
    Involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market.
  48. Value-expressive appeals
    • Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user.
    • Actual self-concept
    • The actual self-concept refers to the individual�s perception of who I am now.
  49. Extended self
    Consists of the self plus possessions.
  50. Geo-demographic analysis
    Based on the premise that lifestyle, and thus consumption, is largely driven by demographic factors.
  51. Ideal self-concept
    The ideal self-concept refers to the individual�s perception of who I would like to be.
  52. Independent self-concept
    Emphasizes personal goals, characteristics, achievements, and desires.
  53. Interdependent self-concept
    Emphasizes family, cultural, professional, and social relationships.
  54. Lifestyle
    How a person lives.
  55. Mere ownership effect
    The tendency of an owner to evaluate an object more favorably than a nonowner.
  56. Peak experience
    An experience that surpasses the usual level of intensity, meaningfulness, and richness and produces feelings of joy and self-fulfillment.
  57. Private self-concept
    How I am or would like to be to myself.
  58. PRIZM
    A set of 62 lifestyle clusters organized into 12 broad social groups.
  59. Psychographics
    Attempts to develop quantitative measures of lifestyle.
  60. Self-concept
    The totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to him-or herself as an object.
  61. Social self-concept
    How I am seen by others or how I would like to be seen by others.
  62. VALS
    • Provides a systemic classification of American adults into eight distinct consumer segments.
    • Antecedent states
    • Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics.
  63. Atmospherics
    The process mangers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers.
  64. Communications situation
    The situation in which consumers receive information.
  65. Disposition situation
    Refers to the frequent issue faced by consumers of disposing products or product packages after or before product use.
  66. Embarrassment
    A negative emotion influenced both by the product and the situation.
  67. Moods
    Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object.
  68. Physical surroundings
    Include d�cor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding the stimulus object.
  69. Purchase situations
    The situation in which consumers make their product selection.
  70. Ritual situation
    A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of unrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning.
  71. Servicescape
    Refers to atmosphere when describing a service business such as a hospital, bank, or restaurant.
  72. Situational influence
    All those factors particular to a time and place that do not follow from a knowledge of personal and stimulus (choice alternative) attributes and that have an effect on current behavior.
  73. Social surroundings
    The other individuals present during the consumption process.
  74. Store atmosphere
    The sum of all physical features of a retail environment.
  75. Task definition
    The reason the consumption activity is occurring.
  76. Temporal perspective
    Situational characteristics that deal with the effect of time on consumer behavior.
  77. Usage situations
    • The situation in which consumers select a product based on appropriateness for a specific use.
    • Active problem
    • A problem that the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in the normal course of events.
  78. Actual state
    The way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the present time.
  79. Desired state
    The way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.
  80. Extended decision making
    Involves an extensive internal and external information search followed by a complete evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant postpurchase evaluation.
  81. Generic problem recognition
    A discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product category can reduce.
  82. Inactive problem
    A problem in which the consumer is not aware.
  83. Limited decision making
    Involves internal and limited external search, few alternatives, simple decision rules on a few attributes, and little postpurchase evaluation.
  84. Nominal decision making
    Occurs when there is very low involvement with the purchase.
  85. Problem recognition
    The result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.
  86. Product involvement
    Occurs when a consumer is very involved with a brand or a product category and yet has a very low level of involvement with a particular purchase of that product because of brand loyalty, time pressures, or other reasons.
  87. Purchase involvement
    The level of concern for, or intent in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase.
  88. Selective problem recognition
    A discrepancy that only one brand can solve.
Card Set
consumer behavior