- term used because in low to moderate doses these drugs produce heightened mood
- increaced vigilance
- increased altertness
- decreased fatigue
- decreased tendency to fall alseep
examples of psychostimulants
- methylphenidate pemoline
is the most widely used bahaviorally active drug in the world
caffine has of the several substances reffered to as ....
- raises blood pressure slightly
- variable heart rate change
- increased reactivity
the effects of caffine are dependent on
- task demands
- gender of the subject
- typical level of arousal of the subject
these drugs exert distinct emotional and cognitive effects, which may account for their popluar recreational use and abuse problems
d-amphetamine (Dexedrine) most potent of the two
two isomers that amphetamine is made up from
dl-amphetamine (Benzedrine) "bennies"
combination of the two isomers that make amphetamine
methamphetamine (methadrine) "speed" "crank" "ice"
a minor modification in the amphetamine molecule yeilds the slightly more potent
other compounds with very similar molecule structures to amphetamine have been synthesized
behavioral effects related to amphetamine
- the task requirements
- the normal frequency of the behavior
- the dose
- individual characterists
clinical uses to amphetamine and related drugs
a form of methamphetamine hydrochloride can be inhaled through smoking
amphetamines have neuropharmocological properties that enhance the level of ....in the synaptic cleft
although amphetamine and related psychostimulants enhance monoamine activity throughout the nervous system most studies have indicated that the primary reward properties of these drugs are due to their ability to enhance dopaminergic activity in a part of the limbic system called
when the individual stops taking amphetamine after a few days of moderate to heavy amphetamine exposure they generally ..... that is they experience exhaustion depression, lethargy, and hunger
problems associated with malnutrition
high blood pressure
brain damage resulting from restricted blood flow to the brain
effects of chronic amphetamine exposure
antidepressant and anti-fatigue properties
the earliest leading proponent of cocaine's clinical use for it ......
cocaine was later used as a therapy for .....
high doses of cocaine induce the same psychopathological effects noted earlier with regard to ,,,,
tactile disturbances (formication)
the most common of the perceptual changes and pseudohallucinations are .........in which there is a sensation of bugs running over the skin (.....) and visual disturbances (....)
absorbed through the nasal membranes
in north america and other developed countries cocaine hydrochloride is commonly self-admin by ...... so it can be ...........
because cocaine hydrochloride is volatilized at temps. that degrade it in order for it to be effective when smokes it must be reconverted to it.........state
the process of smoking cocaine is called........ and in its crystalline form the compound is commonly referred to as ....
local anesthetic properties
block neural conduction
cocaine has....... because of its ability to ....
inhibit the reuptake of CAs from the synaptic cleft.
cocaines .......effects are medicated primarily by its potent ability to ....
smoking (free basing)
when administered intravenously or through ........ aka....... cocaine can induce a very strong psychological dependence