Social 30 Chapter 5

  1. What is censorship?
    Restricting freedom of expression or freedom of access to ideas or works to protect the perceived common good.
  2. What is dissent?
    The political act of disagreeing; the right to disagree.
  3. What is totalitarianism?
    A government system that seeks complete control over the public and private lives of citizens.
  4. Who was Lenin?
    A Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution (1917). As leader of the Bolsheviks, he led the Soviet state during its initial years. He fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian civil war and worked to create a socialist system.
  5. What was the October Revolution?
    1917. Russian Revolution, a series of economic and social upheavals, a reaction to the uncontrolled capitalism in pre-revolutionary Russia where the means of production were in the hands of a small group of people (the bourgeoisie) who benefited from the working conditions of the proletariat (working classes). The Bolsheviks (communists), under Lenin, sought to destroy the class-based system and provide better living and working conditions for all.
  6. What is totalitarianism?
    A government system that seeks complete control over the public and private lives of its citizens. It attempts such control through a hierarchically organized society dictated by a single political party run by a leader or small elite.
  7. What are some techniques of totalitarianism?
    • -a secret police
    • -indoctrination
    • -censorship
  8. How did communism start in Russia?
    At the start of the 20th century, Russia was an autocracy under Tsar Nicholas II. Russia was still primarily agrarian and only beginning to experience the effects of the Industrial Revolution. Those who moved to cities expecting more opportunities experienced the living and working conditions typical of 19th century industrialization under capitalism. The Tsar's government was inefficient and authoritarian. The outbreak of WW1 intensified the problems in Russia and paved the way for the Russian Revolution. Radical communism was able to emerge as the dominant ideology and molded Russia into the USSR.
  9. How did Nazism start in Germany?
    Following WW1, Germany had been humiliated by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The liberal democratic government in Germany in 1918 was not able to implement stable government. Reparations, political instability, and economic challenges resulted in hyperinflation. Eventually, through the charismatic leadership of Hitler, the Nazis establish the Third Reich.
  10. What was the Enabling Act?
    1933. A suspension of all power in the Reichstag (parliament) which would give Hitler power to rule by decree for 4 years.
  11. What were the Nuremberg Laws?
    1935. Laws that systematically suspended all civil and human rights of the Jewish population in Germany.
  12. What is collectivization?
    An economic policy where all land is taken away from private owners and combined in large, collectively worked farms.
  13. What is communism?
    A system with property vested in the community and each member working for the common good according to each person's needs and abilities.
  14. What is fascism?
    Extreme, right-wing, antidemocratic nationalist movement which led to totalitarian forms of government in Germany and Italy (1929-1940s).
  15. What is reactionary?
    Opposing change. Idealizes the past.
  16. What is radical?
    Extreme, revolutionary, rejecting traditional political and economic systems.
  17. What is emancipation?
    Freeing from restraint (legally, socially, politically).
  18. Who were the Bolsheviks?
    An organization of revolutionaries under Lenin which became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  19. What was the Reichstag?
    The parliament of the German Empire.
  20. What was the Dawes Plan?
    American banks lent money to the German government, allowing Germany to continue making reparation payments according to the Treaty of Versailles. Left Germany in debt.
  21. What is authoritarianism?
    A form of government with authority in the hands of an elite group.
  22. What is a scapegoat?
    Use of people to take the blame for someone else's actions.
  23. What is propaganda?
    A communication of information to rally support for a cause.
  24. Who was Stalin?
    Leader of the USSR after the death of Lenin.
  25. Who were the Kulaks?
    Wealthy farmers that owned private farms.
  26. What is a gulag?
    Soviet labor camps that held criminals to political prisoners?
  27. What is autarky?
    Self-sufficiency/independence from other countries.
  28. What is eugenics?
    The practice of improving the genetic composition of a population.
  29. What is patriarchy?
    A social system where males are the primary authority figure.
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Social 30 Chapter 5
chapter 5